CRISPR primer: A detailed look at its history and varieties


The most immediate thing to note is just how widespread CRISPR is as a process used by cellular life. About 40% of all studied bacteria have the system in their genome, but that’s practically nothing compared to Archaea, where 90% of all those studied have it. They just lose out overall due to having less in numbers, at least of those studied.

It was originally believed that CRISPR systems in bacteria only targeted viral DNA and that any RNA specific phages would be free to attack bacteria….

But that isn’t entirely true for all bacteria. Last year, a new CRISPR system named C2c2 was found in the bacteria Leptotrichia shahii that does specifically target viral RNA, showing that there are indeed some bacteria that develop those sorts of defenses when they need it. And this was an important find, as being able to target RNA for editing as well opens up even more options for the future.

There are five primary types of Cas systems, running from the roman numerals of I to V (The RNA-based C2c2 system mentioned before might actually count as a new type VI), though they are largely classed into two functional groups. Types I, III, and IV are grouped together because they all make up what are called multiprotein effector complexes. What are those?

The GLP aggregated and excerpted this blog/article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion, and analysis. Read full, original post: CRISPR: An In-Depth Primer On All Its Varieties

For more background on the Genetic Literacy Project, read GLP on Wikipedia

Outbreak Daily Digest
Biotech Facts & Fallacies
Talking Biotech
Genetics Unzipped

Video: We can ‘finally’ grow GMOs—Nigerian farmer explains why developing countries need biotech crops

Nigerian farmer Patience Koku discusses the GMO crop trials she is conducting on her farm, and why growers can "rise ...
mag insects image superjumbo v

Disaster interrupted: Which farming system better preserves insect populations: Organic or conventional?

A three-year run of fragmentary Armageddon-like studies had primed the journalism pumps and settled the media framing about the future ...
dead bee desolate city

Are we facing an ‘Insect Apocalypse’ caused by ‘intensive, industrial’ farming and agricultural chemicals? The media say yes; Science says ‘no’

The media call it the “Insect Apocalypse”. In the past three years, the phrase has become an accepted truth of ...
breastfeeding bed x facebook x

Infographic: We know breastfeeding helps children. Now we know it helps mothers too

When a woman becomes pregnant, her risk of type 2 diabetes increases for the rest of her life, perhaps because ...
organic hillside sweet corn x

Organic v conventional using GMOs: Which is the more sustainable farming?

Many consumers spend more for organic food to avoid genetically modified products in part because they believe that “industrial agriculture” ...
benjamin franklin x

Are most GMO safety studies funded by industry?

The assertion that biotech companies do the research and the government just signs off on it is false ...
gmo corn field x

Do GMO Bt (insect-resistant) crops pose a threat to human health or the environment?

Bt is a bacterium found organically in the soil. It is extremely effective in repelling or killing target insects but ...

Environmental Working Group: EWG challenges safety of GMOs, food pesticide residues

Known by some as the "Environmental Worrying Group," EWG lobbies for tighter GMO legislation and famously puts out annual "dirty dozen" list of fruits and ...
m hansen

Michael Hansen: Architect of Consumers Union ongoing anti-GMO campaign

Michael K. Hansen (born 1956) is thought by critics to be the prime mover behind the ongoing campaign against agricultural biotechnology at Consumer Reports. He is an ...
News on human & agricultural genetics and biotechnology delivered to your inbox.
Optional. Mail on special occasions.
Send this to a friend