Jewish researcher attacks DNA evidence linking Jews to Israel

Credit: Flickr/ Daniele Giovannoni

It’s one of the consequences of the ongoing conflict between Israel and its neighbors that the origins of the “Jewish people” periodically surfaces as an issue of great controversy. It’s particularly troublesome when a scientist—in this case, an Israeli molecular geneticist whose motivations appear more personal and ideological than scientific—stokes the contretemps.

The current brouhaha arises over a recent study by Eran Elhaik and is accompanied by his personal attacks on more mainstream scientists who have eviscerated his work. In the face of overwhelming evidence from dozens of studies over twenty years from geneticists and historians around the world, Elhaik is aggressively stumping on behalf of his belief that most Jews trace their seminal ancestry not to the Middle East but to the Caucusus and Eastern Europe.

Khazarian myth

Elhaik, who is now a post-doctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins, is recirculating the debunked “Khazarian hypothesis” promoted by journalist Arthur Koestler in his 1976 book, The Thirteenth Tribe, written before scientists had the tools to compare genomes and challenge his conclusion.

The Khazarian myth was more recently recycled (to great applause by anti-Israeli activists and some pro-Palestinian groups) in no less convincing form by Israeli French historian Shlomo Sand in The Invention of the Jewish People, published in 2008—a book panned by both historians and geneticists.

Elhaik reengaged the faux controversy late last year when the Oxford journal Genome Biology and Evolution published his study, “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses.” The young Jewish researcher challenged the so-called “Rhineland hypothesis”—the broadly accepted genetic and historic evidence that about 80 percent of Jewish Ashkenazi males trace their ancestry to a core population of approximately 20,000 Eastern European Jews who originated in the Middle East. Elhaik wrote that the Khazars converted to Judaism in the eighth century, although historians believe and genetic evidence confirms that only a fraction of the population converted, including almost certainly royalty and some members of the aristocracy.

A paper published in 2000 by geneticists Harry Ostrer, a professor of genetics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer showed that most Ashkenazis, Italians, North Africans, Iraqi, Iranian, Kurdish and Yemenite Jews share common Y-DNA haplotypes that are also found among many Arabs from Palestine, Lebanon and Syria.  Only a small percentage of the Y-DNA of Jews originated outside of the Middle East—some in the Caucusus.

The competing Rhineland and Khazarian theories were most recently discussed by Ostrer in two studies published in 2012 and in his well received book, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. He found that geographically and culturally distant Jews still have more genes in common than they do with non-Jews around them, and that those genes can be traced back to the Levant, an area including modern-day Israel. “All European [Ashkenazi] Jews seem connected on the order of fourth or fifth cousins, Ostrer has said.

The concept of the “Jewish people” remains controversial. The Law of Return, the Israeli law that established the right of Jews around the world to settle in Israel and which remains in force today, was a central tenet of Zionism. The DNA that links Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi, three prominent culturally and geographically distinct Jewish groups, could conceivably be used to support Zionist territorial claims —except, as Ostrer has pointed out, some of the same markers can be found in Palestinians, distant genetic cousins of the Jews, as well. Palestinians, understandably, want their own ‘right of return’.

That disagreement over the interpretations of Middle Eastern DNA also pits Jewish traditionalists against a particular strain of secular Jewish ultra-liberals who have joined with anti-Israeli Arabs and many non-Jews to argue for an end to Israel as a Jewish nation. Their hero is the Austrian-born Shlomo Sand—and now Elhaik. His study gained buzz in neo-Nazi websites and radical anti-Israeli and more radical pro-Palestinian blogs. For example, the notorious former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke actually attacked Elhaik in his latest anti-Jewish rant—Duke’s anti-Semitic beliefs hang on the fact that Jews are genetically cohesive and conspiratorial. “The disruptive and conflict-ridden behavior which has marked out Jewish Supremacist activities through the millennia strongly suggests that Jews have remained more or less genetically uniform and have … developed a group evolutionary survival strategy based on a common biological unity — something which strongly militates against the Khazar theory,” Duke wrote in his blog in February.

While Elhaik’s work has provided ideological support for those seeking the destruction of Israel, it’s fallen flat among established scientists, who peer reviewed his work and found it sloppy at best and political at worst.

“He’s just wrong,” said Marcus Feldman of Stanford University, a leading researcher in Jewish genetics. “If you take all of the careful genetic population analysis that has been done over the last 15 years… there’s no doubt about the common Middle Eastern origin,” he said. He added that Elhaik’s paper “is sort of a one-off.”

“It’s an unrealistic premise,” said University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer, one of the world’s top Y-chromosomal researchers.

Discover’s Razib Khan did a textured critique in his Gene Expression blog, noting the study’s historical fuzziness and its selective use of data to come up with what seems like a pre-cooked conclusion. As Razib writes, it’s hardly surprising that we would find a small but sizable Khazarian contribution to the “Jewish gene pool”. In fact the male line of my own family traces to the Caucusus, suggesting I’m one of the 20 percent or so of Jews whose lineage traces to converted royal Khazarians. But that view is widely acknowledged by Ostrer, Hammer, Feldman, Michael Thomas and every major researcher in this area—as summarized in my book, Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of the Chosen People.

The rebuke of Elhaik’s study apparently has irked the beleaguered and brash researcher. He’s launched a new offensive—the double entendre is intentional—as chronicled in the Jewish Forward. Elhaik is now calling the world’s top geneticists “liars” and “frauds.” When I weighed in on the magazine’s discussion board, Elhaik responded with academic restraint, claiming my reporting was no better than the geneticists he trashed, saying it shared “common ground with the Nazism (sic) ideology.”

Judaism’s tribal roots

Unlike Christianity and Islam, Judaism is not solely a faith-based religion. Its origins, as is the case with the other prominent surviving ancient religion, Zoroastrianism, are tribal. The blood connections mentioned endlessly in the Hebrew Bible are not just symbolic; the Jews of ancient Israel were a clan of connected tribes who coalesced over hundreds of years. While Jesus and later Mohammad transformed the notion of “blood” into “faith”—one could become a Christian or Muslim through faith alone—Judaism has always retained an ancestral component.

In the Torah, that blood link is patrilineal, passed on from father to son. That tradition is preserved today in the Jewish priesthood, known as the Aaronite line. According to the Bible (and we have no way to know if this is historical or apocryphal), Aaron was anointed as the first Jewish priest and his sons and their descendants became the seed population of the Jewish priesthood. Jewish Cohanim—the word means ‘priests’ in Hebrew—supervised the inner sanctum until the destruction of the Second Temple in the first century, after which the Aaronite line was preserved by tradition, with Cohanim having special privileges and responsibilities to this day.

Are present day Cohanim descended from Aaron? That question is unanswerable; we do not even know for certain that Aaron or Moses even existed. However, DNA studies of the Y chromosome have determined that a majority of self-proclaimed Cohanim (it’s an oral tradition) has a set of genetic markers that trace back approximately three thousand years to a single common ancestor. In other words, if there was no Aaron, there was certainly a High Priest early in the Jewish tradition whose ancestors have retained evidence of that tradition in their DNA.

As discussed in Abraham’s Children, Judaism has always retained its tribal roots even as faith-based religions flourished. In the centuries after the destruction of the Second Temple in the first century, Jewish lineage became defined through the mother rather than the father. Jewishness is now based on a triple helix: belief in God (although many Jews are agnostic or atheist); recognition of ancient Israel as a Biblical homeland; and literal blood connection with other Jews, passed on from generation to generation.

To many people—including and especially Jews sensitive to the Nazi branding of Jews as a race, which led to the near extinction of the religion—acknowledging the genetic cohesiveness of Judaism is uncomfortable. Anything that marks Jews as essentially different runs the risk of stirring either anti- or philo-Semitism. But that doesn’t mean we can ignore the factual reality of what Ostrer calls the “biological basis of Jewishness” and “Jewish genetics.” Acknowledging the genetic distinctiveness of Jews is “fraught with peril,” but we must grapple with the hard evidence of “human differences” if we seek to understand their implications of the age of genetics.

Jon Entine, executive director of the Genetic Literacy Project, is a senior fellow at the Center for Health & Risk Communication and STATS (Statistical Assessment Service) at George Mason University.

  • Matjasz Bogatay

    Palestinians are not ‘distant cousins of Jews.’ Kohanim gene occurs almost as frequently among Palestinians as Jews, shown by Israeli researcher. Cavallo-Sforza et al,’s seminal work demonstrates on a range of markers predominant in the Eastern Mediterranean that Palestinians and Jews are equal on frequency, and more closely related to each other than any other group, incl. Lebanese, Jordanian and Saudi Arabs, Syrians, and others. Many Jews of Galilee turned out to be more Syrian than Judaean. This work has been confirmed by Israeli, British, and American genetic researchers as well. This article is very biassed as usual. If you can’t overcome your ethnocentrism and myths, as well as your hate, you will never obtain peace or longevity as a state.

    • I don’t think you understand the relationship between a haplotype and closeness of relationship. Jews and Palestinians are indeed more closely related than many other groups, but their maternal and paternal lines and their overall gene makeup have diverged over the past two thousand years quite significantly, according to all the studies.

      Nebel et al, in Human Genetics in 2000 concluded: “The two modal haplotypes in the I&P Arabs were closely related to
      the most frequent haplotype of Jews (the Cohen modal haplotype). However, the I&P Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplotypes (and makes up 32% of Arab chromosomes) is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or admixture from
      other populations.” Here’s the link to help you better understand the genetic data: I have no idea about your reference to “myths” or my alleged “hate”. You certainly won’t find it in anything I’ve written. My book “Abraham’s Children” documents the shared ancestry of Jews and Muslims ….something I’m quite proud about as Arabs and Jews share noble Semitic origins. Frankly I’m not sure the point you are trying to make. It’s kind of cool that Palestinians and Jews are cousins; both are cultures well known for their commitment to literacy and family. This is really a science debate and personal attacks are just not warranted.

      • spiritwalker888

        Yes Jon you are right there has been a significant divergence over the many centuries since Abram who later became known as Abraham had a child with Hagar at the insistence of Sarah his wife and Ishmael was born as a result of that union and then when Sarah became pregnant with Isaac, she forced Hagar and Ishmael out of the encampment by basically complaining to Abraham about her. So the Egyptian people are the half brothers of the Israelis and I am sure that the Egyptian People over the course of thousands of years have bred outside of the Egyptian Population, so all of the people over there are half brothers and sisters or cousins to the Israeli People simply because of the intermingling of the people.

      • bible thumper

        There is a lot of similarities of ancestry probably because of the attack, rape and concur that the muslims have practiced since their beginnings. Also the brother of Isaac Ishmael and the brother of Jacob Esau would further the show similar genes but the idea that God doesn’t know who the people that he blessed and those that he cursed is a little silly. Also the true Israelite is easy to find. They were the ones that were dispersed throughout the nations by persecution. God said that they were to put up signposts as to the roads that they were dispersed so they could now the way of their return, and that would again be the persecution of a group of people that shared common ancestral history passed down generationally. God made it to difficult to fake. Their being given back their land after some of the most severe persecution of men women and children is none other than fulfilled prophecy by the hand of God. The test-tube of Gods word
        spells out the reestablishment of the rightful owners of the land given to Abraham. The very ones He dispersed. The Arabs don’t qualify. According to the Lord they would not share in any of Gods promises to Abraham and his covenant people. The bottom line is its easy to see what people were driven from Israel and I am glad they are now back dwelling in the land that God gave them…forever.

        • MJCH

          “We shall know the truth and the truth shall free us.” Thank you Jesus! Read Deuteronomy 28:15-68 , Revelation 2:9, 3:9, Isaiah 11-12.

        • Zionism is worse than racism

          Fuck you^^^^

          • bible thumper

            Jahovah Akbar and may Israel be established forever and those that bless you be blessed and those that curse you be cursed. Can I get a witness?

          • bible thumper

            Jahovah Akbar

        • RoniDC

          the issue is that the word of GOD says a true Jew is one who is one inwardly and this man who writes this denies Moses and Aaron ever existed or at least brings up the claim that it is possible they didnt by saying he does not know if they did

          • bible thumper

            Your getting into a different subject. God speaks to spiritual Israel and he also speaks to the literal lineage of Abraham in the new testament. Physical Israel has recouped their land just as prophecy has foretold but only the ones that believe in Christ will be saved eternally.

          • Helen4Yemen

            Ashkenazi = 99.9% European ancestry as confirmed by DNA

            Ashkenazi = 0% Middle Eastern ancestry as confirmd by DNA

            Where is the Ashkenazi’s ancestral homeland? Palestine or Europe?

        • Helen4Yemen

          Here is your proof that the Ashkenazi were not raped by anyone least of all by Muslims, thousands of miles away from Poland, Lithuanian, Hungary. Their DNA at 99.9%
          says that they one of the purest of any
          European groups.

          And those who persecuted the Jews were Christians …

      • RoniDC

        but you in one breath say the Khazar theory is false then you go on to say that only a small fraction converted . Then you say that your fathers line comes from one of the royal converts consider yourself a Jew and yet you say Jewishness is patrilineal AFTER you already confessed and wrote that your fathers line starts with a convert. of course the woman on that line as well as the woman and possibly men on your moms side may be ethnic Jews but YOU SAID it is patrilineal and that your fathers line is Khazar in origin

      • Helen4Yemen

        The Ashkenaz have no trace of Middle Eastern ancestry. Look at the map of the the Middle East. It is highlighted in color to reflect the ME ancestry for the Arabs but is totally blank for the Ashkenazi confirming no ancestral ties to the ME. DNA does not lie.

        1- ||” Jews and Palestinians are indeed more closely related than many other groups “||Sir: Jews are African, Asian, Arab, European and all these different races of people could not possibly be the same race. Palestinians on the other hand are a people who have lived on their land spanning many centuries. The African Jew is actually African an the European Jew European. Why does such an ordinary every day fact made to be so complicated. I am Semite from the Arabian Peninsular and I can assure that I have no genetic relations with any Europeans be the Christians or Jews. Why this desperate attempt to make the Ashkenazi who are totally a European people to originate from the ME? Accept, cherish who you are and love will follow. But as long as the Ashkenazi continue to reject the only European skin they were born wrapped around with, then that will only bring misery and self-loathing. There is nothing wrong with being European, there is something wrong being made to hate your own European ancestry.

        2- ||” Nebel et al, in Human Genetics in 2000 concluded: “The two modal haplotypes in the I&P Arabs were closely related to the most frequent haplotype of Jews (the Cohen modal haplotype). “||The Jews as I mentioned are African, European, Arab, Asian and so on. All Ashkenazi do score between 96% to 99% in what the DNA firms call ‘Ashkenazi DNA’ or ‘European Jewish’ and the DNA points towards a group of 5 counties in Europe: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and ….The Ashkenazi whether priestly or non-priestly are European and they have no genetic link to my region, the ME.

        3- ||” However, the I&P Arab clade that includes the two Arab modal haplotypes (and makes up 32% of Arab chromosomes) is found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or admixture from “|| Which “Jews”, sir? Nigerian, Uganda, Yemeni, Iraqi, German, Russian, Chinese, Indian, Zimbabwean … see where I am going with this?

        4- ||” My book “Abraham’s Children” documents the shared ancestry of Jews and Muslims “||Whoah! Muslims cover all races and tribes on the face of the earth, they are African, Asian, ME, European, and so and so are ‘the Jews’? How can you make such a broad statement about such diverse groups of people?

        5- ||” something I’m quite proud about as Arabs and Jews share noble Semitic origins. “||I am Semitic and I am here to assure you that no Ashkenazi is. Why the despration to belong to a people, my Semitic people, where there is nothing wrong with belonging to your own European people? Is it total delusion for a European people to believe that they are not European but MEastern. Excuse me?

        6- ||” It’s kind of cool that Palestinians and Jews are cousins; both are cultures well known for their commitment to literacy and family. “||

        Palestinians = Muslims, Jews, Christians

        Jews = African, Asian, European, MEastern, and so on.

        Jew and Palestinians are not mutually exclusive. How can you, who claim to be a scientist make such a statement. Is the Nigerian Jew a cousin of a Palestinian? Is the Chinese Jew? the Yemeni Jew? the Brooklyn Jew? the Lithuanian Jew? Where do you come up with such a broad generalized statement. My advice if you are Ashkenazi: Look in the mirror. Smile. See that very vivid European features on that mirror. You have to to start to embrace and to love that European face, because you only have one face which is very distinctly European.

        7- ||” High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews. “||The quoted statement is from the link you provide. This statement is as crazy as it gets.
        “Israeli and Palestinian Arab”? I thought the Ashkenazi referred to the Palestinians as “Israeli Arabs”? Are “Israeli and Palestinian Arabs” two different groups of people? We know who the ‘Palestinian Arabs” are. Who then are the ‘Israeli Arabs”? You have this desperate attempt to make the Ashkenazi genetically connected to the Palestinians and it is totally an attempt with no scientific basis. Why should Europeans have a genetic link to no other people on earth but to Palestinians. It is so strange, I can’t wrap my head around it.

      • Helen4Yemen

        There were no mixing between the Canaanites and the Israelite from Ur. Why are they not comparing the DNA of the Shia of Southern Iraq where Ur used to be with those who claim to be descended from Abraham.

    • THEY LIE!

      Yeah your comment is not bias???????????? Any Israel researcher is a liar, just like the liars they are about their true heritage beig from satans synagogue! Their is a real DNA study out that proves these fake ashekNAZI jews who started WWII…i.e. the rothschilds and rockerfeller’s and psychotic elite partners in crime, to be MONGOLOIDS, you know that word they call black people, the real jews!! Read your bible and learn something fool, rather than listening to satans synagogue and repeating their lies! Read it or shut up, this world deserves truth, some thing these fake jews and war mongerers HATe so they create and finance a FAKE web site to spew their lies! REPENT OR GO STRAIGHT TO HELL those fakes who lurk behind this site like the cowards they are! REPENT to your one and only JEsus Christ! Oh and by the way, don’t insult the Palestinians and say they are anything lliek these rotten fake jews fro hell! Oh and the jews of galilee were israelites, the real Judeans, the real jews, so shut your yap matjasz bogatay! “This work has been confirmed by Israeli, British, and American genetic researchers as well”……hahahahahahahahahahaha…anyone with a brain knows that says it all…..hahahahahahaha….you fool, shut up when you don’t know what you are talking about or so love to lie like your kind!

      • chrisb

        Jesus said shut up and stop speaking for him

    • david

      Many Jews and Arabs have had kids together over the years so of course their DNA would show that.

    • 1harry2

      Not true; my wife is of Palestinian descent(on one side) and sure enough her DNA showed Middle eastern- close to 28 %. My DNA, as an Askanazi Jew, had a “trace” of Middle eastern; the rest European= 94 % Jewish European. 6 % was non-Jewish European including a significant Italian component which I just knew was there. These accessible tests do not lie. You want to build a case for a religious “right of return”- that’s OK, but not by race or genetics. Palestinians and European Jews are NOT closely related, unless you want to contrive statistics. The Palestinians are the genetic heir- the birthright, if you will- to the land of Israel! It wasn’t known as Palestine for 2 millennia for nothing, after all. This is the only situation in the world where one group of people has almost completely replaced another by virtue of “Holy ” books. If the gene makeup has diverged between these two groups over the last 2000 years, how can we even be sure that there was much Middle eastern DNA ever among European Jews. We are, in fact, the whitest and purist of all European nationalities.

      • Helen4Yemen

        Harry: I sent you a message inviting you to come to my Disqus channel. Perhaps you did not get my invitation. Anyway, I came looking for you and found out that you had posted newer comments. As I begun to read, I reached down to where Jon Entine was responding to some comments and one in particular was shocking to me. The statements he makes do not appear to be by a scientist at all, he makes such wide generalizations and I did respond. Here it is:

        • 1harry2

          Ms. Helen,
          I am totally confused. Could you send me the invitation to your blog again. I don’t know who this Bogatay person is below but he or she lapsed into the worst kind of inflammatory rhetoric, terrible! I want to say away from irrelevant , incendiary proclamations, and stay with the facts, the thesis that you and I share that Ashkenazim are not Middle Eastern at all, that’s it! I have a Jewish friend who had jet black hair and I thought it was because of a Middle eastern component; it was not. His DNA-94% European Jewish turned upNOT a trace of Middle Eastern DNA- but get this- a trace of Polynesian and 2 % Indian subcontinent. He is more Polynesian than Middle Eastern, Ms. Helen.

      • Helen4Yemen

        “If the gene makeup has diverged between these two groups over the last 2000 years, how can we even be sure that there was much Middle eastern DNA ever among European Jews.”
        Harry, it did not diverge! 2000 years is really not a long time. The Ashkenazi are European as Africans are African and Asians are Asian. There is great fear among the Ashkenazi concerning this matter, because once it is disclosed that the Ashkenazi are not “Israelite” then they dread being linked up with the Europeans whom they dislike so much.

        • 1harry2

          I am not 100% sure that Jews who had some Middle eastern DNA did not make up to Europe before the tenth century and spread their religion to pagans living in Germany. Already, a very weakened ME DNA, it was almost completely lost in the ensuing 1000 years.

      • Helen4Yemen

        “You want to build a case for a religious “right of return”- that’s OK, but not by race or genetics”
        Who grants that right? The Ashkenazi would still be a foreign people demanding entry into Arab territory as would the Arab Jews, African Jews, Asian Jews? What if the Jews were 50 million? Where could all the 50 million Jews fit inside the territory of Palestine? If the Jews are entitled to a ‘right of return’ based on religion, what about the Christians?

        • 1harry2

          Ms. Helen,
          The “right of return” already exists. You and I cannot change things nor can we undo the suffering caused by the recreation of Israel to the Palestinians. We can’t even stop new settlements from springing up. The fact is Arabs do control, geographically, vast swaths of land, and the fact is the European Jewish people were almost wiped out during the Holocaust, and the remainder came to the new land of Israel. There is terrible bitter irony here, Ms. Helen. Terrible the way the Jews were wiped off the map of Europe, and the way Palestine was wiped off the map of the world! So sad. But I can barely control the behavior of our chickens, and keep groundhogs out of my cabbage patch, let alone issues of world magnitude!

        • Alan B

          “Who grants that right?”

          God. That’s Who. It’s God’s will that the Jewish people return to their God given land. Read The Old Testament / Hebrew Bible.

  • Jim Jordan

    Wouldn’t the politically relevant genetic data be the pre-Mosaic makeup of the “Canaanites” who were dispossessed of their land when the Chosen People moved for the first time into a land that had been promised to Abraham by Yahweh but which was, inconveniently, already occupied by other people?

    • Jim: Alas, not relevant either politically or genetically. The biblical story is just that–a story or myth. The genetic and anthropological data suggests that the original Israelites were in fact “Canaanties”–a mixture of tribal people indigenous to that region along with a random mixture of “Sea People”(from Med cultures), Semites from elsewhere in the region, and even wanderers from Africa. That evolved into the core population that became the seminal people who made up the early Jewish religion, plus many non-Jewish Arabs. The founding of tribal Judaism led to intermarriage and a distinct population as far back as 2500 years ago. If this subject interests you, I discuss it at some length in my book, “Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of the Chose People.”

      • Mike

        Dear John: My Jewish heritage was recently y-dna tested and my haplogroup is E3B/v22.The timing on this subclade among Ashkenazic Jews has me intrigued!(9th-11th cetury) It’s as if they appear out of nowhere!.They certainly shouldn’t be found there (Ukraine) EXCEPT THROUGH MIGRATION /TRADE.This subclade is certainly NOT native to the Caucuses!(Khazars) The connection between an ancient Jewish kingdom in “Kush” and the Samaritans has been pointed out by scholars.Remember Eldad Ha-Dani? He spoke of a Danite Jewish connection to this kingdom.EV22 has a sizeable representation in this very region(Nothern Sudan) AND it is the haplogroup of the current high priest of the Samaritans claiming Israelite ancestry.Why aren’t scholars pursuing this matter further??

        • Jonah Lissner

          During the Middle Ages, e.g. c. 1000 CE there was likely in-migration from Egypt to Constantinople and then the Black Sea region to add to the contemporary Jewish populations in the Black Sea and Ukraine, after the Islamic incursions from whence E3B and other Y-DNA lines in Ashkenazim genetics occur.

          Another in-migration source is from Romaniote or Italkim Jews, and a third source from Persian Jewish communities all moving North to new lands where the Khazar Kingdom had built to welcome Jewish migration.

          Also vide:

          Synopsis of Israeli Migrations from Mosaic, Assyrian and Babylonian Exiles in Northeast Africa

          Jonah Lissner

          Copyright 2014 by Jonah Lissner. All rights reserved by the Author.

          Drs. Parfitt, Omer, and others including my own research indicate the vibrant multicultural world of the Solomonic Kingdom and the centuries thereafter. It is the dynamic system of Afro-Asiatic socioculture that develops these communities of Israelites, e.g. from c. 1000 BCE to c.1000 CE from Mesopotamia to the Horn of Africa and the ancient to contemporary Nile River system cities and regions. Even 100 years ago, modern Eritrea, Djbouti and Yemen had Jewish communities, however the legacy from the Classical to Medieval Era is likely to include Ethiopia, Sudan and Somali based on the former extent and duration of the Israelite to Judaic migrations and proselytes or conversions to Israelite worship.

          There is much proof for a vibrant African and Asian Israelite community today, which includes the sociogenetic lines, sociocultural artefacts and historical data. As the tribes of Israel today regather the combination of complex system science, history, language, comparative studies and sociogenetics should build strong support for Israelites and Jews of all colors from the Exile, with the majority having the common Afroasiatic/Near Eastern genetic signatures, as Dr. Omer is demonstrating.

          In history and classical texts, popular medieval literature from Afro-Asiatic travelers like Eldad Ben Mahli Ha-Dani and Benjamin of Tudela and others lend more credence to the reality of thriving Jewish communities of the post-Solomonic era across Africa and Asia. If these criteria for Israelite presence are evaluated with folk traditions it is possible, like the Lemba of South Africa, and Chinese Jews of Kaifeng region, another of the Exiled tribes can be restored.


      • Eileen

        Canaanites were also Semites. the Bible does record intermarriage with the Hebrews.that developed as an ethnic in Canaan.When the Romans invaded the Canaanite kingdoms and even their language had disappeared almost 500 years before and only the Jews nation Judea existed and the Samaritan people.. As with most conquered nations the Canaanites were dispersed and or absorbed into the people of the surviving nation.

        • Nessie

          Merry Christmas, Eileen!

      • Helen4Yemen

        Aha! First time I read an attempt to distance the Israelite from their Ur origins. What next?

    • Zeev

      The so called Cannanites were basically Hamites who were given the African continent to settle, Shemites got the Levant and Japhetites the Northern lands. See Noah had to leave his sons something for an inheritance and since he was the only surviving father with sons around he divided up the continents.
      The Canaanites were living outside the boundaries of their inheritances after having murdered the descendants of Shem to the point they couldnt fend off the Canaanite incursions.
      So the so called occupying Cannanites were given the options, Leave, Make Peace, Prepare for War. Now you will change and say the bible isnt true anyways though many you will use it if it suits your malevolent agenda.

    • EdDemian

      The Cannan of those days was a hodge pdge of nationalities and forreign merchants, Military colonies, etc. Didn’t Abraham buy a tomb for his wife Sarrah, from a Hittite?

  • Bulan Sabriel

    Dr. Elhaik is a liar and dumb liar. In his abstract, he shows that he
    doesn’t know when Khazaria existed. And then it gets stupider.

    “Alternatively, the “Khazarian Hypothesis” suggests that Eastern
    EuropeanJew descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that
    settled the Caucasus in theearly centuries CE and converted to Judaism
    in the 8thcentury. Mesopotamian and Greco-RomanJews continuously
    reinforced the Judaized Empire until the 13th century”

    There simply was not Khazar polity after 1016 CE, when the Rus and
    Byzantines destroyed the reminents of Khazaria in the Crimea.
    Ironically, the leader of this polity, Georgiuz Tzul carried a CHRISTIAN

    I should not be able to find a glaring error in the abstract of piece.

    Dr. Elhaik continues his citation ignorance by holding that Khazars were

    ” a confederation of Slavic, Scythian,Hunnic-Bulgar, Iranian, Alans, and
    Turkish tribes who formed in the central-northern Caucasusone of most
    powerful empires during the late Iron Age and converted to Judaism in
    the 8th century CE”

    There Khazars were no such thing. The Khazars were Oghuric/Lir Turks
    (Hunninc-Bulgar) who had many subject peoples. But there is not a shred
    of historic evidence that subject peoples converted. All of the accounts
    of travellers and from the Khazars state and show otherwise.

    Dr. Elhaik then uses this bad history as a justification for picking horrible choices for genetic sampling.

    “Palestinians were considered proto-Judeans because they are assumed to
    share a similar linguistic, ethnic, and geographic background with the
    Judeans and were shown to share common ancestry with European
    Jews(Bonné-Tamir and Adam 1992; Nebel et al. 2000; Atzmon et al. 2010;
    Behar et al. 2010).Similarly, Caucasus Georgians and Armenians were
    considered proto-Khazars because they are believed to have emerged from
    the same genetic cohort as the Khazars”

    This makes no sense. Palestinians aren’t proto-Jews. Elhaik could
    have chosen Samaritanes (those Israelites still exist) and Sephardim.
    Instead he chooses a different admixture. Neither Georgia nor Armenia
    were part of Khazaria and they were absolutely not “proto-Khazars”.

    So why were they chosen? The old Hebrew name from Armenia, “Ashkenaz”
    should be a clue. He could have chosen Turks who claim Khazar ancestry,
    such as Karaylar and Krymchaks. He refused to do so, because he didn’t
    want to compromise his political study with FACTS.

    Dr. Elhaik may not have known history, but he knew how to fake a study.

    And you don’t have to believe me, you can believe Razib Khan.

  • Palichamp

    I, of Welsh heritage, born in the United States, can now collect military toys, and with thousands of people of Welsh heritage from around the world, invade Wales and throw people from their homes? After all at about the same time Jews rebelled against Roman rule in Palestine, Welsh rebels lost their battles on the other end of the Roman Empire.
    Hmmmm. Where does one buy a warplane?

    • Catholicon
    • Martial

      Edward I did us both dirty. The Welsh & the Jews should conquer England together.

    • Catholicon
    • 1harry2

      As a Jewish American I totally agree with you! The big difference between you as Welshman and me- as an Askenazi Jew- is that your DNA, to some degree, matches the DNA of people living in Wales today, whereas in my case- and with most Ashkenazim , we average a trace to 2 % at most of Middle Eastern DNA and do not carry, then, the DNA of the true Middle easterners living in Palestine today. We are not a Middle eastern people at all; we are even more genetically European than you, an isolated, inbred European gene pool. Pity the poor Palestinians and the “right of return” for people like me and Barbara Streisand. What an injustice!

      • Helen4Yemen

        Harry: I have not seen DNA among the Ashkenazi as high as 2%. The most that I have seen is 0.4% and that was very rare, the most common ME component for the Ashkenazi is 0.1%. Can you share a link with me where you found out about Ashkenazi having as high as 2% ME DNA?

        • 1harry2

          How do I do that?

        • 1harry2

          Hi Ms. Helen,
          Some thoughts:
          Doesn’t identify Ashkenazim DNA as about 2 % ME, along with most other European groups?
          No doubt, as I postulated 20 years ago, the primary Ashkenazim founders were Italian/Italian Jews living in Rome before the birth of Jesus. Non-Jewish Italians converted to Judaism in great numbers before Jesus.Some of these Jews may have, indeed, been more Italian than Hebrew, easily. Throughout the early Middle Ages, paralleling the decline of Rome and its loss of population, Italian Jews- and possibly some Israelites, although they were so few in number that their DNA doesn’t even show up any more, migrated up to the Rhineland, Germany , where they prospered, and formed the nucleus of the Ashkenazim, and absorbed German names and language. When things got bad for them they migrated east to Poland and Lithuania where they were more or less welcomed by locals who had not yet fully embraced Christianity. A second wave of Italian/Jewish migrants to this land occurred when King Ferdinand ordered the expulsion of Jews from Sicily where they had been EQUAL to Christians, and other parts of Italy. They joined the existing Jewish populations in this land. I am a derivative of these people, and, in fact, our family in Lithuania retained the name “VOLPE” until the 19th century when it died out. The Italian/Ashkenazim connection cannot be understated, and I would submit, if there is any relevant ME DNA among the Ashkenazim, it comes from the non-Jewish Italian ancestry, rather than the Jewish where the ME connection is functionally non-existent. It is also time for “Jewish” history to be recounted not from the Old Testament, which is as biased as the New with regard to asserting “facts”(I.e. the notion of Israel as being the land promised to the Hebrews by God, and Jesus, in the New Testament, being both God and a living descendent of Hebrews who probably never existed); that is proof from external sources and archeological evidence that there were Hebrew people living in Canaan at the time of the Pharos. The Bible, for all its beauty, cannot be used as a factual history of the Jewish people- at least as it is written before the historical, incidental parts of the New Testament.

  • Zeev

    Looks like another nobody needs his 15 minutes of fame.

  • Palestinian DNA and real Hebrew DNA are a match because, keeping it simple, They lived in the same areas for a long time and to pretend they did not breed with their neighbors is just stupid.

  • Maccalusso

    I recall Mr. Entine in an interview stating that “…the Israelites were a conglomeration of people.” In other words, they were not solely Jews as many commonly believe. Many scholars and historians state that modern Jewry has no connection to biblical Israelites or Semites. As the old saying goes, “those who have the most to hide, hide the most.”

    Encyclopedia Britannica (15th edition): “Khazars, confederation of Turkic and Iranian tribes that established a major commercial empire in the second half of the 6th century, covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia…In the middle of the 8th century the ruling classes adopted Judaism as their religion.”

    Academic American Encyclopedia (1985): “Ashkenazim, the Ashkenazim are one of the two major divisions of the Jews, the other being the Shephardim.”

    Encyclopedia Americana (1985): “Ashkenazim, the Ashkenazim are the Jews whose ancestors lived in German lands…it was among Ashkenazi Jews that the idea of political Zionism emerged, leading ultimately to the establishment of the state of Israel…In the late 1960s, Ashkenazi Jews numbered some 11 million, about 84 percent of the world Jewish population.”

    The Jewish Encyclopedia: “Khazars, a non-Semitic, Asiatic, Mongolian tribal nation who emigrated into Eastern Europe about the first century, who were converted as an entire nation to Judaism in the seventh century by the expanding Russian nation which absorbed the entire Khazar population, and who account for the presence in Eastern Europe of the great numbers of Yiddish-speaking Jews in Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Galatia, Besserabia and Rumania.”

    The Encyclopedia Judaica (1972): “Khazars, a national group of general Turkic type, independent andsovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries C.E. During part of this time the leading Khazars professed Judaism…In spite of the negligible information of an archaeological nature, the presence of Jewish groups and the impact of Jewish ideas in Eastern Europe are considerable during the Middle Ages. Groups have been mentioned as migrating to Central Europe from the East often have been referred to as Khazars, thus making it impossible to overlook the possibility that they originated from within the former Khazar Empire.”

    The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: “The primary meaning of Ashkenaz and Ashkenazim in Hebrew is Germany and Germans. This may be due to the fact that the home of the ncient ancestors of the Germans is Media, which is the Biblical Ashkenaz…Krauss is of the opinion that in the early medieval ages the Khazars were sometimes referred to as Ashkenazim… About 92 percent of all Jews or approximately 14,500,000 are Ashkenazim.”

    The Bible relates that the Khazar (Ashkenaz) Jews were/are the sons of Japheth not Shem: “Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth;…the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz…” Therefore, the Bible proves that the Ashkenaz Jews [Khazars] are not the descendants of Shem and cannot be Shemites, or what is known today as Semites.

    We can clearly see that the Jews fully understand their Khazarian heritage as the third edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia for 1925 records: “CHAZARS [Khazars]: A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of South Russia long before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (855). Jews have lived on the shores of the Black and Caspian seas since the first centuries of the common era [after the death of Christ]. Historical evidence points to the region of the Ural as the home of the Chazars. Among the classical writers of the Middle Ages they were known as the ‘Chozars,’ ‘Khazirs,’ ‘Akatzirs,’ and ‘Akatirs,’ and in the Russian chronicles as ‘Khwalisses’ and ‘Ugry Byelyye.’…”

    The Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 10, (1971) relates the following about the Khazars (Chazars): “Khazars, a national group of general Turkic type, independent and sovereign in Eastern Europe between the seventh and tenth centuries A.D. During part of this time the leading Khazars professed Judaism.”

    The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia: “Khazars, a medieval people, probably related to the Volga Bulgars, whose ruling class adopted Judaism during the 8th cent. The Khazars seem to have emerged during the 6th cent., from the vast nomadic Hun (Turki) empire which stretched from the steppes of Eastern Europe and the Volga basin to the Chinese frontier. Although it is often claimed that allusions to the Khazars are found as early as 200 C.E., actually they are not mentioned until 627…Most Jewish Historians date the conversion of the Khazar King to Judaism during the first half of this century {A.D.}…”

    The primary meaning of Ashkenaz and Ashkenazim in Hebrew is Germany and Germans. This may be due to the fact that the home of the ancient ancestors of the Germans is Media, which is the Biblical Ashkenaz…Krauss is of the opinion that in the early medieval ages the Khazars were sometimes referred to as Ashkenazim…About 92 percent of all Jews or approximately 14,500,000 are Ashkenazim.

    The American People’s Encyclopedia for 1954 at 15-292 records the following in reference to the Khazars: “In the year 740 A.D. the Khazars were officially converted to Judaism. A century later they were crushed by the incoming Slavic-speaking people and were scattered over central Europe where they were known as Jews. It is from this grouping that most German, Polish and Hungarian Jews are descended, and they likewise make up a considerable part of that population now found in America. The term Aschenazim is applied to this round-headed, dark-complexioned division.”

    Academic American Encyclopedia, Deluxe Library Edition, Volume 12, page 66 states: “The Khazars, a turkic people, created a commercial and political empire that dominated substantial parts of South Russia during much of the 7th through 10th centures. During the 8th century the Khazar aristocracy and the Kagan (King) were converted to Judaism.”

    The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 6, page 836 relates: “Khazar, member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century A.D. established a major commerical empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia…But the most striking characteristic of the Khazars was the apparent adoption of Judaism by the Khagan and the greater part of the ruling class in about 740…The fact itself, however, is undisputed and unparalleled in the history of central Eurasia. A few scholars have asserted that the Judaized Khazars were the remote ancestors of many of the Jews of Eastern Europe and Russia.”

    Collier’s Encyclopedia, Volume 14, page 65 states: “Khazars [kaza’rz], a semi-nomadic tribe of Turkish or Tatar origin who first appeared north of the Caucasus in the early part of the third century…In the eighth century Khaghan Bulan decided in favor of the Jews and accepted Judaism for himself and for his people…”

    New Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII, page 173 relates: “The Khazars were an ethnic group, belonging to the Turkish peoples, who, toward the end of the 2d century of the Christian Era, had settled in the region between the Caucasus and the lower Volga and Don Rivers…At the beginning of the 8th century, dynastic ties bound the Khazars more closely to Constantinople, which led to a limited spread of Christianity among them. They also became acquainted with Judaism from the numerous Jews who lived in the Crimea and along the Bosphorus. When the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian, persecuted the Jews in A.D. 723, many Jews found refuge in the Khazar kingdom, and their influence was so great that, around the middle of the 8th century, the King of the Khazars and many of the Khazar nobility accepted the Jewish faith.

    The Cadillac Modern Encyclopedia, page 822, states: “Khazars (khah’-zahrz), a S Russian people of Turkic origin, who at the height of their power (during the 8th-10th cent., A.D.) controlled an empire which included Crimea, and extended along the lower Volga, as far E as the Caspian Sea. The Khazar royal family and aristocracy converted to Judaism during the reign of King Bulan (768-809 A.D.) And Judaism was thereafter regarded as the state religion…”

    Arthur Koestler relates the following concerning Jewish history: In his 1976 best seller The Thirteenth Tribe, the Author of Darkness at Noon, Promise and Fulfillment, and The Roots of Coincidence dropped another bombshell by proving that today’s Jews were, for the most part, descendants of Khazars, who converted to Judaism seven centuries after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. “This, of course, is inspired by the story of the Covenant in Genesis; and it implies that the Khazars too claimed the status of a Chosen Race, who made their own Covenant with the Lord, even though they [Khazars] were not descended from Abraham’s seed…He cannot, and does not, claim for them [the Khazars] Semitic descent, he traces their [Khazars] ancestry not to Shem, but to Noah’s third son, Japheth, or more precisely to Japheth’s grandson, Togarma, the anceestor of all turkish tribes. ‘We have found in the family registers of our fathers,’ Joseph asserts boldly, ‘that Togarma had ten sons, and the names of their off-spring are as follows: Uigur, Dursu, Avars, Huns, Basilii, Tarniakh, Khazars, Zagora, Bulgars, Sabir. We [Khazars] are the sons of Khazar, the seventh…'”

    The Jewish author Alfred M. Lilienthal relates the following concerning Jewish history: “…’The existence of [The State of] Israel is not founded on logic. It has no ordinary legitimacy. There is neither in its establishment nor present scope any evident justice – though there may be an utter need and wondrous fulfillment.’…

    Arthur Koestler answers this question with an emphatic ‘NO!’ In his 1976 best seller The Thirteenth Tribe, the Author of Darkness at Noon, Promise and Fulfillment, and The Roots of Coincidence dropped another bombshell by proving that today’s Jews were, for the most part, descendants of Khazars, who converted to Judaism seven centuries after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D…Therefore, the great majority of Eastern European Jews are not Semitic Jews at all, and as most Western European Jews came from East Europe, most of them also are not Semitic Jews.

    Thus, maintains Koestler, the veins of 45 percent of Israelis (save only the Arab and the Sephardic Jews), plus a big majority of Jews around the world, are utterly vacant of corpuscular links to the tribe of Moses and Solomon…The Koestler thesis, however startling, is in no wise a new one. The genetic Khazar derivation of most Jews, only the Sephardic may be accounted Hebrews by blood, has been long if not widely known…The home to which Weismann, Silver, Ben- Gurion and so many other Ashkenazim Zionists have long yearned to return has most likely never been theirs…[it is an] anthropological fact, many Christians may have much more Hebrew- Israelite blood in their veins than most of their Jewish neighbors!

    Ironically enough, too, Volume IV of the Jewish Encyclopedia (as of the time of research, 1952), because this publication spelled Khazars with a ‘C’ instead of a ‘K,’ is titled ‘Chazars to Dreyfus.’

    And it was the famed trial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, as interpreted by Theodore Herzl, that made the modern Jewish Khazars of Russia…forget their descent from converts to Judaism…to establish the State of Israel…

    “Strictly speaking it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a ‘Jew’ or to call a contemporary Jew an Israelite or a Hebrew.” – (1980 Jewish Almanac, p. 3)

    • Isaac Der3i

      The khazar belief is now proven to be myth.

      Ashkenazim are a hybrid of middle eastern and mediterranean. They are identical to Sefaradim.

      • EdDemian

        I’m J M267. So I am a Cohanim Jew? Bull shit. My family traces it’s origin at least 1000 years back. To ARMENIA. So all you self hating Jews who want to be Kazars, or better still Germans, you are stupid and disgusting. The part of history that you are missing is found in Armenian history. Here’s a short sample. The Ashkenztzy Jews, come from the Armenian provinces of Ashken and Nawar. Ashkennavar. In Armenian, “tzy” means horse. So, Ashkenatzy in Armenian to this day, means. A horseman from Ashken. The people everyone calls Armenians, have gained that name after 1250BC . Before that’d we were known as Biainili, Hayasa, Vannic kingdom, Hurrians. To this day, we call the Jews, Hurriatzy. (Hurrians, = Hurriatzy). So, the Jews and the Armenians are related through the Hurrians. And so are the Egyptians because their faroes married Hurrians princesses. There is so much more but you need to study.

        • Catholicon
          • EdDemian

            I’m not sure which word I misspelled. I speak to various degrees about seven languages and my spelling sucks in all of them. Except perhaps Romanian. It’s nearly impossible to misspell in Romanian, unless you don’t know the word. But seriously, I found the article(short book) very interesting, and informative. I wont challenge any of it’s contents. It seems well researched, and well expressed. Bravo, I’m impressed.

        • Helen4Yemen
  • dune

    Another researcher proving that African Americans, Black Islanders and Africans are the true Children of Israel. These Ashkenazi Jews are descendents of Ashkenaz who was ultimately born of Japheth, not Shem. The curses that were to follow the Children of Israel just don’t fit these so called “jews”. Deuteronomy 28 proves this. Google “Hebrew slave hieroglyphics” and you will see how the Egyptians depicted the Hebrew slaves themselves!

    • Isaac Der3i

      Elhaik’s research confirmed that Ashkenazi Jews are middle eastern, related to persian speaking jewish communities and to armenians.

      Countless other studies have shown Sefaradi Jews are identical to Ashkenazi Jews as well.

      Jews are middle eastern. African Americans are not descended from the Hebrews. Most Jews are, including American and Israeli Jews. Besides genetic studies, history and common sense prove this.

      Most Jews are olive skinned with middle eastern features, including many Ashkenazim.

    • Lakenya Monfort

      Amen please tell em! The so called Jews today are light years from the real children of Israel in the Bible, specifically in Deuteronomy 28!

      • EdDemian

        Bull shit to that. American blacks are a mixture of Africans and whites. No Cherokees, no Rasta man crapp.

        • Catholicon

          your blanket is full of holes…. seriously dude, there are so many variants to the admixtures that you can not think to make such comments and be taken seriously….

          • EdDemian

            Sure there are exceptions, I’m referring to the majority. However, the African Americans, like the Jews have been oppressed, so it’s natural that they would prefer to be something else. But with Genetic testing, all crap science belongs in the out house.

          • Catholicon

            “like the joojubes” ok you are but an Antichrst, uneducated troll…. thnx for making it obvious #GenrikhYagoda

          • Avram Cohen

            Besides being stupid, please learn to spell!

          • Catholicon

            i’m not the goy pretending to be a jew, like you….

          • Avram Cohen

            Take your meds and go back to bed you Catholic douchebag!

          • Catholicon

            goy poser…. ww3 ya freak is your end …..bye bye LOSER retard

          • Catholicon

            that you need meds does not mean the rest of us do r1a Aryan fool…..

          • Catholicon
          • Catholicon
          • EdDemian

            What the fuck kind of nightmare did you just wake up from? You make no sense. I have a Bachelor degree in business and have managed to learn six languages. “joojubes” ? Sorry, did not spend much time in those back alleys. Never learned the jargon. Antichrist.? What, is this a religious tread?

          • Solo

            No group of people have been oppressed as the enslaved blacks in the Americas, not in the past nor future. There is no comparison to the present day Jewish people. The experience of blacks in the Americas parallels the ancient Israelites who fled Eygpt with Moses. The main difference is that the blacks lost their identity. I think there is something in the bible about the loss of identity. So if you can proudly say that you stem from a line of Jewish ancestry for the past 1,000 years, then you are not the Israelites mentioned in the bible. However, salvation is free to all if you follow the commandments of the Messiah.

          • Good4U

            I see no parallel or comparison either. As I recall from biblical readings, Pharaoh tried to prevent Moses & his followers from leaving Egypt. American blacks are not barred from leaving. Those who wish to leave may do so at any time. Those who feel oppressed in North America might do well to take that option.

          • Solo

            Most blacks really don’t have a place to go nor the means to get there, let alone go as group. You may not realize it, but blacks have a vested interest in this land as their ancestors have been here longer than most and worked hard to develop this country. Biblically speaking, the Messiah will gather the dispersed of Israel from all the nations He scattered them when He returns. He sold them for nought and will gather them for nought. Not sure why Jewish people are in Israel right now though.

          • EdDemian

            Why should the American blacks be all that tied to the land? After all it did and continues to oppress and deprive them. If I were black, I would go to Liberia. In Liberia, the American returnees are the ruling class. Knowing what they learned, the education, the higher IQ, would give them a head start. Over here, the whites have the head start, the blacks are way behind.

          • Solo

            Did you actually write the post above or did someone use your username? Your comment speaks volume about your IQ and insults the indigenous people of Liberia. I not going to waste any more time with you.

          • Avram Cohen

            Are you a special needs kind of stupid, lol

          • EdDemian

            The indigenous people of Liberia were likely canibals when the first boat load of returnees arrived. Liberia is better of because of the returnees.

          • Avram Cohen

            lol, black Israelite garbage is nothing but wannabe dingbats!

          • EdDemian

            As far as I’m concerned, American blacks are welcome to do whatever they choose; but personally, I would not put up with the conditions. I left Romania where I was born, because of everyday hassles. But the hassle of being black never goes away. I would definitely go where my skin color would not hold me back.

          • EdDemian

            I am not saying that I stem from a line of Jewish descent. I’m saying that the Ashkenatzy Jews stem from Hurrians as do the Armenians. I am J* M267 not J1M267. I think that J* is older than J1 and J2.

          • Solo

            Okay. It is possible to be Jewish without being an Israelite. Hence the term Israelis.

          • EdDemian

            I’m not sure I understand your comment. Israel is a Geographic term. No? Being Jewish is a Geneological term. Religion aside or not. I’m personally not trying to prove anything. I’m trying to find out my origins. The J1 M267 is called the Arab Gene. But is it. Since we know that it originated in Anatolia, is it not likely that it was carried to Arabia from there? That possibility is reflected by the fact that the J1 M267 is found in pockets and not evenly distributed.
            I’m convinced that Jews and Armenians have a common founder. But when? That is clear since not only we share physical traits, nut genetic illnesses. i.e. Mediteranian Desease. The Turks that also have it, are acculturated Armenians. The Kurds who have it are acculturated Armenians.

          • Catholicon
          • WhiteConquersAll

            white people are the true jews
            japheth is israel and judah
            repent now for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!!!!!!!!!!

          • Lakenya Monfort

            “Ashkenatz alleged Jews” are nothing more than white people that came into Israel during the 1940 and formed the so called Jewish state of Israel lol. No true Israelite by blood nothing more than the Synagogue of Satan as described in the Bible. Hell I have CONFIRMED ISRAELITE dna and you? Post your results and I will do the same lol

          • EdDemian

            Ashkenatzy Jews are descended from Abraham, a Hurrian, who married other women of his tribe. The eleven other tribes were more distant genetically, more semitic. So the Ashkenaz look more European than the others. I stand corrected, there is another tribe, very close to the Ashkenaz. My ‘family tree DNA” test results said I was a J*M-267. “Synagogue of Satan”? Man, I’m not Jewish but still insulted by your stupidity. My initial instinctual diagnosys was correct. You are suffering from Tourette Syndrome and victimising normal thinking clinical people with your ailments. Go get help. Normal thinking people on this forum need some semblance of normalcy in order to think.

          • Avram Cohen

            Lol, another wanna be important black Israelite nutjob… The IQ of the average black person is not high, their accomplishments in this world have been NOTHING!

          • Catholicon

            liars and deceivers… da frauds that claim to be joos…

        • Lakenya Monfort

          I also have CONFIRMED NATIVE AMERICAN dna as well from 5 different tribes that includes: the Serrano, Aleut, Miwok, Nez Perce, and Lumbee! Again post your results I’m ready for you! Men lie women lie but number and science don’t!

          • Lawrence

            Maybe you do have Indian ancestry (though that’s a pretty impressive geographic spread, especially the Aleut!) – but there are a whole lot more American blacks who think they have a Native great-grandma, than actually do.
            As Harvard University historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr. wrote in 2009,

            “Here are the facts: Only 5 percent of all black Americans have at least 12.5 percent Native American ancestry, the equivalent of at least one great-grandparent. Those ‘high cheek bones’ and ‘straight black hair’ your relatives brag about at every family reunion and holiday meal since you were 2 years old? Where did they come from? To paraphrase a well-known French saying, “Seek the white man.”
            African Americans, just like our first lady, are a racially mixed or mulatto people—deeply and overwhelmingly so. Fact: Fully 58 percent of African American people, according to geneticist Mark Shriver at Morehouse College, possess at least 12.5 percent European ancestry (again, the equivalent of that one great-grandparent).


    • Catholicon

      lol at you

  • Brandon Manseill

    Of course an Israeli researcher would denounce the findings.

  • Greg Page

    The word is spelled “Caucasus” and not “Caucuses.”

  • Isaac Der3i

    Elhaik’s research proved his own theory wrong. His own paper said that Ashkenazim are middle eastern, being identical to Azeri Jews who are Mizrahi as well as to Armenians. What an idiot.

    • EdDemian

      As an Armenian wit Cohanim genes (J M-267) I took an interest. No way, I’m adopted or a Rabby and an ancestor of mine …. My genes go back 8000 years. So, whats the conclusion? I think, when the Hurrians split into Armenians (actually Hayassa and Azzi Hayassa), A group split off and became the Ashkenatzy. Otherwise how do you explain everything? I know that Jews don’t like Armenians; and would rather be Kazarians or Germans? But get over it. Many of my people are banging on the Aryan roots thing. That’s bull shit too. We are a mixture of many Caucasian and Anatolian tribes, with the last invasion being the Armeno/Phyrigians in 1250BC. After that, no more genetic influx. I’m laughing at the pseudo geneticists on the net with agendas..

      • Catholicon

        A godless gentile heathen is what you are (((period)))

        • Avram Cohen

          lol, either you’re joking or a lunatic!

          • Catholicon

            nice try nut job…. you should learn the difference betwixt an ARYAN wannabee “levite” and the Arbins that established the Sumer civilization and were in the Levant before *migrating* to Europe (diaspora) ……

          • Avram Cohen

            Ok, you proved you’re a nut job lunatic.. now go back to bed and take your meds quackadoodles! :)

          • Catholicon

            That you have a problem with Y-DNA SCIENCE is your problem ya dimwit FRAUD!
            The evidence cannot be twisted to suit goy Antichrists like you, and it won’t!

          • Catholicon

            r1b Arbins, as demonstrated by multiple sources, were in the Levant while r1a Aryans were not at relevant times as per the Judahites’ trail….

          • Catholicon

            lol you godless loser…. you must come from a really (((important))) people that you need Usurp another people’s past and purport yourself to be them….. Enjoy your meds, freak geak!

          • Catholicon

            what an odd novelty, the goy playing make-believe joo is the Canard slinger…… iMight as well watch CNN than read your drivel….

        • EdDemian

          Where up your colon did you come up with that? Suffering from a touch of Tourette Syndrome? Do some more LSD maaaaaaaaaaaaan, you’ll see more clearly.

          • Avram Cohen

            I agree, too much LSD for the quack, lol

          • aarontco

            Encouraging illegal drug use is inappropriate. Free speech does not include inciting or encouraging criminal behavior. Your comment has been flagged as inappropriate and violates terms of use.

          • EdDemian

            You retarded child.

          • aarontco

            Your inappropriate comment violates terms of use and has been reported.

  • Ezra

    What a disgusting argument this is. It’s pathetic that we are even discussing who is what. We, human kind, are all a huge mixture of different backgrounds. Often, who we think we are and who we really are are two very different things.

    What sets us apart is how we treat eachother, how we respect our environment and our conscious behaviour. Where you are from doesn’t matter. Being chosen by God is so misinterpreted it’s untrue. More liberal (zionist) branches of Judaism believe this to mean superiority. That is the basis of fascism. No, I’m sorry that is it plain and simple. I couldn’t care less that my ancestry is both Sephardic and Irish, you know why because just like every other human being there will have been infidelities and adoptions and all kinds that will mean my and your gene pool is wider than many are happy to accept.

    I wholeheartedly agree with Shlomo Sand when he says that Jews feverishly trying to prove Jewishness through ethnicity and common blood is appaling and a crime. It’s what the Nazis were trying to do, head measurement…nose shapes and so on. Get a grip on yourselves. Be a Jew by your actions, not by your surname or some mythical idea of race. My God, we are going back 3,000 odd years. Grow up! No soul is better than any other. Children are losing their lives over this triviality.

    • EdDemian

      I don’t know about other peoples motives. Perhaps curiosity. But in Turkey, the inheritor of the Apartheid philosophy, constantly spending treasure to prove that the Armenians don’t belong in Anatolia, and that they are a “dark skinned Anatolian tribe of recent migration, that belongs somewhere else”.

  • Lakenya Monfort

    There is only one group in the world that are direct descendants of Aaron at that is the Lemba Tribe of AFRICA! The Lemba tribe has the highest concentrations of HAPLOGROUP J1 IN THE WORLD!

    • Lakenya, I’ve written a book on this with much of one chapter on the Lemba…it’s called Abraham’s Children. The Lemba are not direct descendants of Aaron (who we do not know even existed). About 55% of the Lemba Buba priestly claim carry the Cohen Modal Haplotype, which is one of a few priestly lineages but overall the male lineage appears Semitic in origin but not part of the priestly line.

      • Lakenya Monfort

        I admire your passion but that is far from the truth. The so called Israelis in Israel today are nothing more than Europeans. Just because you conquer a specific area and eventually blend in does not make you Jewish. Europeans have done this all over the globe trying to tell people who they are and what they are not!

        • Avram Cohen

          Lol, you’re a wanna be with low IQ!

          • Lakenya Monfort

            No bitch I’m the realist with DNA evidence! I know who I am what about you? Post your results and I will do the same liar.

          • Lakenya Monfort

            No I have a very high on otherwise a troll like yourself wouldn’t have taken out the time to respond in such a way. You would’ve replied with an educated hypothesis or perspective.

        • Bee

          Study to show thyself approved. The references are in the bible for reasons that help to open doors no one can shut and close doors no one can open.

        • Helen4Yemen

          They can claim to be “Jewish” as a group who practice Judaism, but to claim to be Middle Eastern is just asking for ridicule. I am Middle Easterner and we just laugh at them.

      • Lakenya Monfort

        I have confirmed Lemba, Palestinian, Jordanian, Ethiopian, and Yemenite DNA. I got my dna results back last year. Men lie women lie but numbers, history, and science don’t. Anyone can attempt to refute anything with a theory tailored to their own perspective but that doesn’t make it accurate.

        • Helen4Yemen

          Where did you get your DNA done? The 3 major DNA firms 23andme, ancestry and familytreedna have only Middle East as a genetic group and not broken down by country.

    • EdDemian

      Have you run across Armenian Genetic studies? 12% of Armenians are J1. Many are J-M 267 (Cohanim gene); Including me.

      And, there aren’t that many Lembas.

      • Lakenya Monfort

        I have Lemba, Palestinian, Yemenite, Jordanian, and Ethiopian dna what about you? Post your results and I will do the same because talk is cheap.

  • Lakenya Monfort

    Why African Americans are the True Children of Israel! MUST SEE

  • Martial

    Genetic analyses of the origins of peoples has little likelihood of benefit & much risk of harm. Has any disease been cured by such study?

  • Catholicon
  • EdDemian

    Lord have mercy. I am continually amazed at the ignorance displayed by Jews and none Jea s alike. This discussion continually recycles the same old myths. That the Jews are Kazarian, from the Caucasus, Egypt whatever. The participants seem to have agendas. Anti-Jews would want to prove that the Jews belonged somewhere else.; The Racist Jews who wannabe something else. All ignore both the scriptures, Linguistics and Genetics. Good luck to you all.

  • Not Yours

    “””You have not begun to appreciate the real depth of our guilt. We are intruders. We are disturbers. We are subverters. We have taken your natural world, your ideals, your destiny, and played havoc with them. We have been at the bottom not merely of the latest great war but of nearly all your wars, not only of the Russian but of every other major revolution in your history. We have brought discord and confusion and frustration into your personal and public life. We are still doing it. No one can tell how long we shall go on doing it. The Century Magazine January 1928 Volume 115, Number 3 pages 346-350 Marcus Eli Ravage Jewish Leader

    “We should turn Her (Russia) into a desert populated with white Niggers. We will impose upon them such a tyranny that was never dreamt by the most hideous despots of the East. The peculiar trait of that tyranny is that it will be enacted from the left rather than the right and it will be red rather than white in color.”– Leon Trotsky real name Lev Bronstein


    “There is a great danger for the United States of America, this great danger is the Jew. Gentlemen, in every land which the Jews have settled, they have depressed the normal level and lowered the degree of commercial honesty. They have remained apart and unassimilated — they have created a state within a state, and when they are opposed they attempt to strangle the nation financially as in the case of Portugal and Spain. For more than 1700 years, they have lamented their sorrowful fate — namely, that they were driven out of their motherland, but gentlemen, if the civilized world today should give them back Palestine and their property, they would immediately find pressing reasons for not returning there. Why? Because they are vampires — they cannot live among themselves; they must live among Christians and others who do not belong to their race .”If they are not excluded from the United States by the Constitution, within less than 100 years, they will stream into this country in such numbers they will rule and destroy us and change our form of Government for which we Americans shed our blood and sacrificed life, property and personal freedom. If the Jews are not excluded, within 200 years our children will be working in the fields to feed the Jews while they remain in the Counting House gleefully rubbing their hands. “I warn you, gentlemen, if you do not exclude the Jews forever, your children’s children will curse you in your graves. Their ideas are not those of Americans even when they have lived among us for ten generations. The leopard cannot change its spots. The Jews are a danger to this land and if they are allowed to enter they will imperil our institutions — they should be excluded by the Constitution.”

    ~Statement in the Convention, concerning Jewish immigration to America and the danger it posed (1789)

  • Jesus_is_Messiah

    Christianity is a race as well as a faith, the new covenant is clear on this point. The New covenant uses the same exact language as the old one calling Christians a holy race and a royal priesthood, a peculiar people for Gods own possession. This is not really a shocker since The New covenant comes out of the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah. Remember The Christians came out of the same three tribes as the pharisees (who later became the Talmudic Rabbis) ie Judah, Levi and Benjamin. Jesus in 33AD and Bar Kochba later on split Israel right down the middle. Some Israelites became Christians others became Talmudists. Both groups converted people from every tribe, people and nation, so you would expect to find the same DNA among both groups. And Id like to know how the scientists determined what authentic Jewish/Israelite DNA looks like to begin with? Where did they find an ancient israelite by which to compare these modern day Jews? and how did they know whether he was a convert or not? Even the father of modern Rabbinic Judaism, the man who crowned bar kochba ie. Rabbi Akiva was a gentile convert, so who did they dig up, how did they know what tribe he came from? How did they know he was an Israelite? Did they dig up several ancient Israelite people from different tribes or what? Even in Jesus genealogy you see many converts so even if they dug Jews up from 300 year before Jesus it would be impossible to know whether they converted. Conversion was common in ancient times. Anyone could become a jew In fact, the whole tribe of the edomites was converted by force in the days of John Hyracanus. So Id like to know where did they get this DNA to authenticate the Jews of today?

  • James Clipper

    Half 36% negroid Jew Rothschild Adolf Hitler knew full well his cousins aren’t biblical Hebrew’s as did Egypt’s King Nassar who during an interview stated, “You Hebrew speaking Europeans left here black and returned white. You can have no peace here!”
    My DNA Y Chromosome is Shem E1b1a vs Khem E1b1a. Modern Jews, Sephardi have a admixture of which 36% is negroid. Rev 2:9, 3:9 refer to those who say they are Yahudi and are not but of the synagogue of Satan. I Mqccabees 3:48 refer to the Rennassaince Era of white washing history. In 1948 during a Tetrad Red Blood Moons the US, Europe and the UN kristened those Fakeraeli Jews with sovereignty in correlation with Daniels prophecy. Yet they are NOT scriptural Hebrews/Ibaryath/Eber. They fit none of the prophecies nor description of Hebrews ie Dabvrym 28: 14-68

  • isa

    Why do you link to Amazon books? You should link to sites that have your sources available for free. I read the first page of your book that was available fo preview. Honestly, it felt like I was reading a novel. I don’t want to read about how your throat clogged in the heat of the afternoon desert air. I just want facts and information when I click on a link about “dozens of sudies”. There are people who actually want to review the your sources and compare them to your interpretation.

  • Kimar31

    I think you know who the Semites are. FYI, “negroes” are not descendants of Ham.

  • King James Bible
    ◄ Romans 2:29 ►

    But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.

  • Marlon Te Vrede

    White jews are not Semetic nor hebrew… they are of Japhet (Yefet) just like Palestinians, and only came into the area after 70AD.. imposters just like all other ethnical branches of (once upon a time converted ethnical groups of jews). Goodbye.

  • lighthorse16

    “Hamlet” springs to mind “The Lady doth protest too much!”

  • Bee

    Seems to me we have a problem if you don’t even believe if Aaron and Moses even existed. So why try to claim the Land of the Israelites as your inheritance then? what is the importance of the proof of DNA? Anyone with biblical understanding knows that if the DNA originates in Ancient Lebanon then we have an issue of High breeding and I can see how important that would be to want to hide. JESUS was and is the KING OF KINGS and the LORD OF LORDS, you can deny all you want but even you know your DNA can not be Changed and I know that it leads to clues of who you are..And now we have a world of peoples who find money out weighs the truth. Rome wears white beanies and Jews wear black, what a checker board of connections. Rome destroys the second temple and Jews except them as brothers today, that is a Wow that turns to a Woe! Jere 24 tells things pretty clear. And when they went into captivity didn’t the Levite’s come out with foreign wifes and halfbreed children, and a tribunal had to be set up for those who chose to stay in Israel to divorce their wifes and send them off.? Just follow the Name of Ashkenazi in the bible and you will find they were only to be helpers in the tents of Shem. The Y Chromosome is very specific to Jews . But the Jews have not been mindful or they thought YHVH would not lead his people to the truth that is so very obvious and that is there are 11 other tribal brothers who each have a name, beyond Judah. At the birth of YASHUA something very prophetic took place that set a new way to follow Israelite DNA that can not be denied when it comes forth. Praise be to YHVH. Let his glory shine and every knee will bow to him when he comes forth on the 7th Trumpet.


  • Magnus Johansen

    Hi, I have figured out a whole series of ancestors both civil and Jewish. Have tried my DNA in England , but I am not professional , so I must get help with and read my DNA lineage who ancestora were , one now in Israel Haifa in particular where my Genealogy Reseaech led to for example – – and other Genealogical webber on the Internet.
    Hi, I will be even taken to be foreign in Israel so I had to make them aware of my international relations with Israel . In the upload Family Tree was accused of being an interactive Family Tree with few Jews , but as I said , there is a lack of the most ambiguous an Israeli blood tests.

  • Lawrence

    Lot of confusion on this thread about the ancestry graphs that show Ashkenazi as a European group. One can be 99.9% Ashkenazi and still, most likely, about 50% European, 50% Middle Eastern by distant ancestry. Yes, the Ashkenazi as an ethno-religious group have been in Europe 1500-plus years. But current DNA science tells us a few things about the Ashkenazim. First, that they originated in pre-Christian times largely as a result of Jewish Middle Eastern men making their way across the northern shores of the Mediterranean (Greece, Italy), intermarrying with gentile women, and establishing communities throughout Southern Europe, and then later in the Rhineland, and then later still (15thC) into Eastern Europe. So yes, by virtue of almost 2000 years of history in Europe they are “European,” but genetically, they are a Middle Eastern/European hybrid people. I don’t know how those genetic facts support (or not) the Zionist backstory, but those appear to be the facts. Re. the Khazars- so what? They were not the only non-middle-Eastern peoples absorbed into the main body of the Jews. Moreover, Jews throughout the world exhibit hybrid genetics, though some smaller and more isolated groups (Romaniotes, Samaritans, Iraqis) are more closely related to their Middle Eastern ancestors, than are Ashkenazism.

  • anonymous

    Europe .. the gig is up! Jewish people are NOT the descendants of the biblical people. They are Europeans who converted to Judaism; nothing more. The true descendants of the Hebrew Israelite people, always have and still are a negroid people. And that people didn’t become Caucasian all of a sudden. History is recorded time and again, that the Khazar kingdom converted to Judaism. But common sense should tell anyone, that man was made from the earth. And now the most High’s chosen people are opposite of his original creation?? Not so. Leprosy was a curse towards Israelite. So now, that people are licked w/ a cursed, yet still His chosen?? Doesn’t make sense. Nor does it line up w/ anything that does. The gig is up!

  • Leroy Davis

    God has began to cleave to us where we have been brought as bondmen and in chains of iron, wherein whites rowed upon our backs and hung us on trees. In this later day, we understand and except the Judgement of our God who was just in that he did to us. We have began to refuse the white lies that were fed to us along with pork. We touch no unclean thing. The Levites of the Tribe of Judah, we will drink the fullness of the cup of suffering our Father prepared for us. We reject every false way for God’s punishment is better than man’s reward. God has refined us in the furnace fire are feet are like polished brass. We have learnt humility and servitude to the Most High. We were swallowed by the whale of Jonah and brought to a strange land and have seen Egypt and our african cousins no more. Neither do we sacrifice to the queen of heaven, but have learned to respect the Law and commandment of our God. Our lands were taken by whites, we were enslaved and our memory erased as the people of God. Yet, we love the LORD our GOD for He has dove eyes.
    All our generations have been a holocaust, who has not owned us. Who was marred and disfigured like the son of Adam, the son of man and God’s Messiah. Although Gentiles defile the image of our Messiah, He has hidden nothing from us and declared all the Truth to us and the end of the ones that have done this in Israel his chosen people. We do not desire whites to recognize us as Jews, we hate the name Jew as we hate idols and images. We do not care for the Land or the tin, the silver the oil or the gold. Our desire is to love and serve our God , our Brother and Our Savior in peace. Our desire is for justice and that our Redeeming Brother repay those that have done these things in Israel for gain of riches and the burning of their flesh for our daughters mingling their blood with the sons of Adam. We pray our Father remove the image of jealousy from the earth and those that blasphemy His Word, His people and His Existence. We pray He cast them in the furnace fire. For the murderers that possess the Land this will be Abel’s testimony against you when you die and face judgement by God.