How do ribosomes translate RNA into proteins?

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Machines can be large and complex. Take a car, for instance. It has an engine that allows it perform the task of driving us humans from one place to another. A single misstep or damage to one of many car parts and the machine would stop working all together. For example, a rusted car engine would prevent the car from starting, let alone moving it forward. Now consider this machine idea in biology. Just like their man-made counterparts, biological machines can be complex and large, and can perform tasks with tremendous power. ATP Synthase, for example, is a large protein machine in cells that functions by rotating itself to power its ATP (energy) molecule production. Similarly, we have ribosomes as the protein-making (translating) machines in cells. Either functioning freely in the cytoplasm or embedded within the membranes in compartments of the cell, these machines work tirelessly to make new proteins. Ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell are like cars, driving along the messenger RNA strand (mRNA), trailing the growing protein chain with it until it reach its final destination stop (the stop genetic code on mRNA) to finish protein synthesis (2). Found in all living organisms that make proteins, how does this machine achieve its mighty feat of a role?

View the original article here: Scicurious Guest Writer! Ribosomes: ‘Prepare to be translated’

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