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talking biotech

Podcast: CRISPR immunizes pigs against PRRS—deadly viral disease that costs $600 million annually

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Kevin Folta: University of Florida plant geneticist Kevin Folta launched Talking Biotech in 2015.    More details

Pigs worldwide are plagued by a series of viral diseases that slow growth, cause illness and drastically restrict reproduction. One of the most pervasive is known as Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome, or PRRS. As Iowa State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine notes, the disease wreaks havoc on pigs:

Primary clinical signs among young pigs are fever, depression, lethargy, stunting due to systemic disease, and pneumonia. Sneezing, fever and lethargy are followed by expiratory dyspnea and stunting …. Postweaning mortality often is markedly increased, especially with more virulent strains and the occurrence of ever-present concurrent and secondary infections.

PRRS increases pork production costs approximately $580 million annually, according to a 2017 estimate, as breeders attempt to manage the disease or prevent it with vaccination and other measures.While these practices help keep PRRS in check, Christine Burkard, assistant professor of infection and immunity at the Roslin Institute in Scotland, says her team has devised a solution to this pressing animal welfare concern.

christine tait burkard
Christine Burkard

Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, the researchers have successfully deleted part of a gene from the pig genome, changing the structure of a corresponding protein called CD163 so the virus can’t attach to it. The gene-edited animals are PRRS resistant, showing “no signs of infection and no viremia or antibody response indicative of a productive infection,” Burkard and her colleagues reported in a 2018 study.

Related article:  Transparency and trust: Is there room for 'the people' in the human gene editing debate?

The disease-resistant pigs are beginning to enter breeding programs for further study. Following approval by the Food and Drug Administration, they could begin to enter the US food supply.

 

Christine Tait-Burkard is an assistant professor of infection and immunity, genetics and genomics at The Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Follow her on Twitter @Cburkard4

Kevin M. Folta is a professor in the Horticultural Sciences Department at the University of Florida. Follow professor Folta on Twitter @kevinfolta and email your questions to [email protected]

The Talking Biotech podcast, produced by Kevin Folta, is available for listening or subscription:

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