Why do East Asians have 20% more Neanderthal DNA than Europeans?

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In 2010, scientists made a startling discovery about our past: About 50,000 years ago, Neanderthals interbred with the ancestors of living Europeans and Asians. Researchers also have found a peculiar pattern in non-Africans: People in China, Japan and other East Asian countries have about 20 percent more Neanderthal DNA than do Europeans.

Joshua M. Akey, a geneticist at the University of Washington, and the graduate student Benjamin Vernot recently set out to test possible explanations for the comparative abundance of Neanderthal DNA in Asians. The theory that made the most sense was that Asians inherited additional Neanderthal DNA at a later time. In this scenario, the ancestors of Asians and Europeans split, the early Asians migrated east, and there they had a second encounter with Neanderthals.

UCLA geneticist Dr Kirk E. Lohmueller and graduate student Bernard Y. Kim approached the same genetic question, but from a different direction. They constructed a computer model of Europeans and Asians, simulating their reproduction and evolution over time. After many trials, they found that a model that included a second interbreeding, another “pulse” of Neanderthal genes into the Asian population, fit the existing data the best.

But the two-pulse hypothesis also poses a puzzle of its own. If Neanderthals became extinct 40,000 years ago, they may have disappeared before Europeans and Asian populations genetically diverged. How could there have been Neanderthals left to interbreed with Asians a second time?

Read full, original article: A New Theory on How Neanderthal DNA Spread in Asia

  • thignabuot

    it’s important to put the “20% more” into perspective. if europeans have only 1% neanderthal dna then asians would have 1.2% neanderthal dna, which seems much less extreme

    • Jerry3130

      Yes, but we are only 2% different from monkey.

      • bobbyjacabson

        but that doesn’t mean we come from monkey. perhaps a common ancestor?

        • Human and Chimpanzee share a common ancestors, but Chimpanzee is Chimpanzee (Pan), and we are Human (Homo). Chimpanzee is our “Cousins”, not our ancient Ancestors.

          • Donald J. Mouse

            Not all humans.

      • But, we are only 50% different with Banana….Yes, Banana Fruit, about 65% with Chicken and about 90% with the Mouse / Rat.

  • Jazz

    Well, it’s more like 1-4%, but your point is valid. There is a certain stigma with Neanderthals and with certain races having some of this DNA. The term Neanderthal is often used as an insult, which is rather unfair to this cousin of ours. It is often black supremacists who go out of their way to point out that they are “pure”; usually driven by an inferiority complex.

    All of this science SHOULD simply be of interest to humanity’s roots and diversity. If you look at European and Asian technical contributions over the centuries, it sure seems this Neanderthal addition wasn’t a bad thing!

    • Junk Teigen

      yeah im pissed that i have less neanderthal genes, but then again, the concepts and skills attained and the software that is running in the brain has faaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaar more to say than genes, lest you have some major defect

      • Rhea_202

        Neanderthal DNA is associated with an increased risk of developing skin corns and callosities, mood disorders and depression, overweight and obesity, upper respiratory and urinary tract infections, incontinence, hardening of the arteries and even smoking.

        SMH!
        Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-10-heavy-price-neanderthals.html#jCp

        • Under_Our_Noses

          well, at least they don’t get sickelcell anemia, and other african-only-linked genetic issues ;-). No one is perfect!

          • Rhea_202

            well atleast my ass…..Sickle cell anemia is more common in certain ethnic groups, including: People of African descent, including African-Americans (among whom 1 in 12 carries a sickle cell gene) Hispanic-Americans from Central and South America. People of Middle Eastern, Asian, Indian, and Mediterranean descent. ITS NOT JUST A BLACK THING AND THATS JUST ONE THING

          • bobbyjacabson

            at least the africans didn’t get wiped out unlike your ancestor neanderthals

        • Aaron Litke

          oh well. we seem to be doing pretty well despite all of these potential problems. each group has their respective malfunctions, so fucking what? i see youre on this black supremacy nonsense. good for you, you have no neandertal blood! great. i hope i do, and i know i am healthier and more intelligent than most people. i will getting my results from 23andme relatively soon. fingers are crossed.

          • bobbyjacabson

            and u must be on that white supremacy bullshit.

          • Dan Theman

            Sorry, but we are.

            When whites first made contact with Sub-Saharan Africans, they were simplistic hunter/gatherers who killed each other for fun, & hadn’t even invented things like a written language & the wheel….

            The vast majority of contributions to modern society come from Europeans. Almost nothing from Africans…

            When Africans take over (or rather ‘steal’) a modern society from whites like South Africa, Zimbabwe, Haiti, Detroit, & Chicago, they destroy it. There is not a single successful black civilization on this planet. It’s the truth.

            The way in which you’re superior to whites is athletically. Just like a chimp is athletically superior to a human…

            Have fun…. I hope I’ve ruffled your feathers.

          • Swavy Slim

            Yet the richest human alive was an African named mansa musa……….Who was Saint Maurice by the way…………

        • Max X kinght

          but black are closer to monkeys

          • Rhea_202

            Not true…..the funny thing about that is white ppl have no lips just like apes and monkeys HA

          • Max X kinght

            its funny that blacks look like monkey & there are monkeys with big lips
            https://www.google.com/search?site=&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=638&gs_ivs=1&q=monkeys+with+big+lips&oq=Monkeys+with+big+lips&gs_l=img.18…2782.3509.0.4105.8.7.0.0.0.0.216.568.0j2j1.3.0….0…1.6.64.img..5.3.565.0..0j0i5i30k1.L8Z1IrRagMk#imgrc=K23M3HQtvrcsKM:

          • Max X kinght

            & its also funny we do have Lips but our lips are so big they look like they going to explode like you giant monkey lips

          • Rhea_202

            ummmm no yalll dont

          • Max X kinght

            UMMMM YOU JUST HAVE VERY BIG Giant ass Lips that get any bigger it explode, so fuck you monkey lips

          • Rhea_202

            Ok dvd slot lips

          • Max X kinght

            its funny that you blacks look like monkeys

          • bobbyjacabson

            No. Just no.

          • Max X kinght

            YES JUST YES

        • Shinobi

          You’re funny. Asians have more Neanderthal DNA than anyone and they tend towards being thin and have some of the longest lifespans of any human population.

    • Donotask

      Neanderthals were known for their huge brains. When it is used as insult, it’s tongue and cheek. It’s very probable the Neanderthal is where “whites” get their intelligence from, thus their progressive innovation when compared to other racial groups. You speak about Asian technological contributions, but Asians still have not invented as many things as white Europeans have. Not that there is a competition, but it’s important to note as much as any fact is. Much if not most of their “contributions” come from the exceptional ability to expand upon European innovative inventions and creations, most notably European technology and medicine.

      • Nadia

        I’m not convinced that whites are more innovative or be smarter. But I’m convinced that some people from any race could be full of themselves sometimes.
        If you look back to the history, you will find different races had taken turn to have the control of the world or part of it during last thousands and thousands years. This was a result of many factors (just one of them could be having a strong and bright King). Sometimes Egiption, Persian, Chinese, Mongolian, Vikings,… were on top.
        There are always other factors contributing to a better and wealthier society… Just put these racist thoughts aside and enjoy the science.

        • Irene

          OMG! you are spot on,about all races contribute here and there.One example is the Arab that teach us math,and most invention used math to certain degree.

          • 42tribes

            Arabs got math from blacks. The Pyramids used Algebra long before there were Arabs. Pythagoras and most other Greek philosophers studied in Africa.

          • lucky9lives

            You are 100% correct !!

          • Jim Doe

            Egyptians back then were not black, get your facts straight.

          • 42tribes

            What would you call the multitude of these people?
            https://www.pinterest.com/garygarrett353/ancient-egypt/
            or these people
            http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=15;t=006199
            From the Sphinx to tiny rolls of Shabti dolls the ancient Egyptians depicted themselves as greater Africans ie black, and when you look at their ancestry test what do you see 80-95% greater Africa.

          • Mike

            Actually the leadership in Egypt had been white since the times of Alexander the Great. A little education goes a long way…

          • bobbyjacabson

            Wrong

          • bobbyjacabson

            WRONG

          • Donald J. Mouse

            Good grief…There is a world of difference from S.Africa and N.Africa. Africa is a big damn continent….rating from 0-10…S Africa was a 1 compared to N.Africa’s 10 in innovation. It was because of the interdiction of the ‘white traveler’ from the east to the Nile Valley in 3000BCE

          • bobbyjacabson

            Stupid fool. No just no.

          • Donald J. Mouse

            One would be a fool to think there were no blacks in Egypt…But none were anything to the ones who held the power…Just look at the depictions of paintings on the tomb walls…In nearly every one, they were depicted as workers/slaves.

          • bobbyjacabson

            And so were the whites dummy.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Yes they were. You get your facts straight.

          • bobbyjacabson

            YES, they were YOU get YOUR facts straight.

        • Rob

          “I’m not convinced that whites are more innovative or be smarter”

          Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

          No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

          Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

          Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures. How could they live with all that shoreline and never contemplate putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did?

          Blacks are the oldest race, they had a huge head-start so they should be the most advanced race; but they are the least advanced race. And in fact they never did develop until they were domesticated by Whites.

          19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites.

          There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

          Put Whites on an island and you get England; put Asians on an island and you get Japan; put Blacks on an island and you get Haiti.

          Nowhere Blacks live are they considered achievers. In fact they are universally viewed as unproductive and disruptive to society.

          Simply, life is an IQ test.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Bitch go fuck yourself. All that bullshit stupidity.

        • Rob

          Black-White IQ Distribution:

          For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

          Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

          Blacks:
                           5% above 110 IQ
                           16% above 100 IQ
                           40% above 90 IQ
                           70% above 80 IQ
                           30% below 80 IQ
                           18% below 75 IQ
                           10% below 70 IQ

          Whites:
                           10% above 120 IQ
                           18% above 115 IQ
                           27% above 110 IQ
                           40% above 105 IQ
                           50% above 100 IQ
                           60% below 105 IQ
                           35% below 95 IQ
                           15% below 85 IQ

          So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

          The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

          Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

          These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

          Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

          As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

          Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Get that pseudo-science bullshit outta here. That is an inaccurate research. I’ve never taken an IQ test and so many other that I’ve known. So don’t believe that crap called research because it’s all pseudo.

          • Donald J. Mouse

            Most non-whites reject changes to their social habits, so I am not surprised that you would reject science and facts….I am aghast that you would think there are no others with more intelligence than you have….You can take an abbreviated IQ test on-line to get close…and they are free….Here is one of the more popular ones;
            test-iq.org .

          • bobbyjacabson

            Yeah, tell that kindergarten shit too your 2 yo sister. You whites didn’t invent anything of importance at all. The inventions you dumb ancestors claimed to have built are from other ethnicities. The inventions made nowadays are from people from other ethnicities. So if you want to claim to have descended from a generation of people with big brains that were dumb as hell and didn’t invent anything of worth and who had NO culture at all, which of course your kind still doesn’t, literally knock yourself out.

        • Shinobi

          The vast majority were Asian and Caucasian civilizations though.

      • LuwianMemories

        Inventing technologies is as much a factor of environment and circumstance as it is about inherent intelligence. Asians (here I use the term to mean just mongoloid Asians, including East Asians and Southeast Asians) are intelligent, and this is shown by ancient states in Asia such as China, Korea, Japan etc that existed long before the rise of European nation-states and today still exist in the aforementioned European nation-state framework. Asians were also very innovative – one example is the four great inventions of China, which were paper, gunpowder, the compass, and moveable printing. Imagine our current civilization without any of one of those four things, not to mention all four. Beyond that, there are many other examples, such as the rudder (imagine how the European Age of Discovery would have turned out without that or the compass) and the iron plow pulled by draft animals that wore harnesses that did not choke them around the neck (thus massively improving agricultural efficiency, resulting in the large and dense populations you see in Asia today). Unfortunately, going back to my earlier point, innovation in Asia dropped off just as Europe was starting the Renaissance, due to a variety of factors including turmoil and restriction on foreign travel in China, Korea, and Japan, and of course, European colonization of large parts of Southeast Asia. The development and ascendancy of Neo-Confucianism in China and East Asia, with its very rigid doctrines regarding conforming to authority, also contributed in stifling innovation.

        • Mike

          I don’t disagree, I have English, Swiss, Indian, and African blood and believe my self to be a very rounded individual, I can put myself to any task and be great at anything I do, whether it includes technical equations or manual labour, I have very good social skills, I have a inventive mind and I can lead as well as follow. I’m not trying to be big headed, my point is, I don’t know many that have the diverse skills that I have and I believe this to be due to the contributions from my different linniages, every different race has there own specially evolved skills to help them survive in the environment that they naturally evolved in, no 1 race is better then the other, mealy a result of natural selection, so if we retain Neanderthal DNA we hold it for a good reason, because we need it in order to thrive or survive (all of the best bits). Neanderthal were very clever and capable people but lacked some considerable social skills like sharing thought and ideas with other tribes, we can see this when we look at excavation sites, we rarely find the same tools and inventions in more then one place and each tribe had there own unique methods of performing everyday tasks, which leads one to believe that Neanderthals weren’t a united people, never had much trade between tribes and when a tribe was wiped out so were their technology’s, contributions and discoveries, but it worked for them for a long time until the world started to change and then became one of there major downfalls but they still live on today, my main point is Neanderthal were compatible enough to bread with homo-sapiens which goes to show that we are much more alike then one is lead to believe.

        • Eric U

          Why do most people of most ethnicities give credit to a entire ethnicity. Asians are innovative, how is a entire ethnicity innovative. Let’s be honest only a few people came together to make all the things you named. I will never understand why people take credit for things they never had a part in making. Reminds me of football when people are like We beat the redskins, and all those people did was sit on their couch and watch real men at work, and then have the audacity to say they won. Very laughable.

          • Misa

            It’s because people are racist. That’s it. They believe that because those innovations were made by men that share the same ethnicity as they do, that they possess superior DNA to that of other ethnicities. Regardless of whether or not they’ve made any contribution in the advancement of society, they still believe that inherently, they’re superior based solely on their ethnicity. That is textbook definition of a racist.

          • Dan Theman

            ‘Racism’ is really just a survival trait. That’s it. Human tribalism is right at the root of humanity, you can observe the same barbaric tribalism in one of our closest ape relatives, the chimp.

        • Dan Theman

          It all comes down to environment, that’s literally what shapes life & existence itself. What’s your point exactly?

          Facts are facts, it’s you who doesn’t want to admit the truth. Why is it so hard for non-whites to admit?

          I’ll tell you why, because non-whites have a genuine inferiority complex. If they didn’t, then they’d have no problem giving credit where it’s due. Human’s always hide uncomfortable truths because emotion & pride still plays a big part in our genetic makeup (myself included).

          & I think you’ll find many whites have a great respect for Asians (particularly East Asians) & revere their uniformity, pride, & intelligence.

        • Donald J. Mouse

          The compass was invented during ChineseHan Dynasty (since about 206 BC)….Europeans didn’t discover the Chinese compass until the 13th Century….Europe’s discovery led to new lands discovered and colonies formed with white settlements in backwards countries, taking advantage of the primitives they found there.

      • Umschaltspiel KOP

        Actually, the “inventions” as you call it is a result of a relatively recent 300-year historical period that the European got the advantage of Industrial evolution. In the middle ages, Europeans were more stupid, less intelligent and less progressive than middle-eastern muslims. They brought a lot of knowledge and science back from Crusade which led to the renaissance. Most importantly, white European never invented any writing system. ALL writing systems – the most important of all human inventions – originated from Asia, Middle East and North Africa. The claim that white Europeans are or were genetically superior is the most stupid thing ever conceived. It entertains only stupid (and racist) people.

        • jmtc

          Even the Native American civilizations like the Mayans had a written language and advanced skills in math.

          • Daniel Allen

            True, but hook me up when they discover metal.

          • Donald J. Mouse

            Mayans were skilled in artisanship with gold and silver….So, there is that metal.

          • Donald J. Mouse

            Mayan civilizations started close to 2000BCE….but writing was already invented. Mayan heyday was from 900AD-1500AD where their astrophysics and mathematics excelled.

        • Daniel Allen

          Ugh, you are aware that the main reasons the muslims were so advanced was the traces of hellenic technology the selucids had laying around right?

          And you do realize it was the fall of rome (Another super advanced civization) that ultimately triggered the beginning of the dark ages.

          So no, the crusades brought the white mans OWN technology back and now we have idiots claiming we never invented anything to boost an alter ego, go away.

          • Umschaltspiel KOP

            And you know that Indian invented “zero” and the muslim invented Algebra and algorithm right? Rome hardly advance any science and knowledge for over a thousand year. Their mathematics sucked really really hard. They were a legal culture. They had no mythology or spiritual culture of their own. The Hindu mythology and literature was richer even than the Greek. And they invented Buddhism too. In Rome’s whole existence, they didn’t even have a native literature of their own.

            No doubt the Dark Age came after them. They were pretty dumb.

          • Daniel Allen

            Muslims invented algebra hundreds of years after the romans died? What a shocker.

            Nah, you dont know shit, the Romans and Greeks for thier time period and existance contributed way more than the seljuk devils who slaughtered everyone who stood in thier way without offering anything.

            Do your research on classical history, the romans even invented plated armor.

          • Dan Theman

            Yes we do, but in terms of physical inventions directly contributing to modern human society, it’s not even contest. It’s like 95% European.

            You can argue all you like, but I acknowledge the previous contributions from Asians, so you’re more than welcome to return the favour.

            So now lets just wait for the first non-European person on this planet to finally acknowledge the immense contribution to human enlightenment, freedom, & living standards from Europeans.

          • wastedideas

            You don’t “invent” math… “Math”, as a concept has always existed. The understanding of it would have inevitably been acquired by any civilization… and its use to understand the universe is still, and will always continue to be, in progress.
            I always get a real kick out of people making the “they ‘discovered’ algebra” claim. Algebra and arithmetic, in essence, have been used by people since they first gained cognitive faculties.

        • Rob

          Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

          No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion. or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

          Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

          • Eric U

            What have you invented?….No No No really what have you and the billions of people on this earth ever invented? Nothing, you didn’t invent nothingggggggggggg. Humans think black, white this blah blah blah blah blah. It’s not a race thing its a people thing. A whole race of white people saw a couple of white people invent all those things (maybe I will say because no one was there behind the scenes when anything was invented), and they just ran with it. Just like the computer system, you nor I invented it we just use it, same with writing, and reading. We are nothing without those few people that invented and transformed us, and made us smarter. Majority of white people, black people, Asian people, and all other ethnicities are sheep that follow the few of our race. So stop acting like white people came together and invented anything when only a few smart people came together, while the rest of us just sat or sit here waiting for those inventions because majority of us are idiots compared to those great men and women that created and shifted the world. Skin color etc has nothing to do with it. Stop taking pride in something you have no part of.

          • Rob Smith

            “It’s not a race thing its a people thing.”
            That’s clearly false.

            OK, so then name a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world?

            Do you dispute that relative to modern man, Blacks have small, light, and primitive brains?

            Are the races equally intellectually endowed?

            How do you explain the racial IQ gap?

            Are societies more safe and prosperous if they are more White, or more Black?

          • Hayden Palmer

            Jesus christ… perhaps Sub-Saharan africans have not had the chance to create anything or expand their infrastructure due to being played the down hander by the white man the minute they landed inside Africa?

            The racial IQ gap is easily explained by the fact that it’s harder to get education in third world countries, due to the white mans inability to help other races.

            I’m white and I can easily see this – don’t let your colour of skin blind your eyes.

            We literally held an entire race of humans as slaves for hundreds of years and then you have the cheek to say that they’re not as technologically advanced as us and that they’re primitive? LMAO, get real big boi.

            I can almost guarantee that if the white man had never persecuted black people, we would very much so be at the same point right now. On top of that, I would love to see you make anything worth while when in 40 degrees heat, no clean water near you and thinking about where your next meal will come from.

            Give a black man the same resources, education and chances as a white man and I can guarantee that there would be no difference in the outcome.

            Please hop off your high horse before being racist and thinking you’re some kind of supreme being – make some kind of amazing revolutionary invention by yourself, then come back to us and maybe we’ll let you off…

            Or perhaps we’ll stick your first born white child in Africa, with no education or food or water and we’ll see how many inventions it comes up with in that environment? :)

            Idiots like you is how Nazism started and racism can only result in the downfall of humanity.

          • Dan Theman

            Lol so you’re admitting that whites are superior then? Africans wouldn’t of been so easily conquered & controlled if they were on the same level…

            I don’t think you realize what this universe is, it’s a power struggle between all life forms, & the superior & stronger come out on top. It’s known as survival of the fittest.

            So you’ve basically just argued for us.

          • wastedideas

            You can’t blame white people for Sub-Saharan Africa’s lack of advancement. When people all split apart from the region, white people didn’t return until they already had advanced technologically and culturally… What were Africans doing all that time?
            If Africans are basically the oldest race on Earth, why are they also the least advanced? How can you possibly blame white people for that? -_-

          • Donald J. Mouse

            “I can almost guarantee that if the white man had never persecuted black people, we would very much so be at the same point right now.”

            And ?African-Americans? would have never happened and they’d still be eating spiders, grub worms, antelope and monkeys and dancing around a primitive fire and humping one another, like their cousins the Bonobo monkeys…..So whatever the blacks in US have today, is because of the white man; period……That isn’t racist, that is a fact….The civil war, (whites on whites) was over slavery and the ‘white man’ made their freedom possible…..They gave them the 13th, 14th Amends…The ’64Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act, Abolishment of the Democratic Jim Crow South, Education opportunities and Affirmative Action…..No black man gave these to black people…white people did…Sure, MLK and others protested and marched, but whatever was gained was through the benevolence of white people……You cannot argue that.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Dumb ass. The Mali empire, Songhai empire, Timbuktu, Languages, Writing, Songs, Dance, Music etc. I could go on but no need the proof is already there. Perhaps your little finite pea white brain could never grasps the achievements of sub-saharan africans.

            But the white however, didn’t invent shit but war.

          • Umschaltspiel KOP

            If you look at the White Men with a neutral eye, their strength is their racial unity. Period. The White man worships his race. His is the only race that worship itself in the art: Greek and Roman sculpture is the clearest example. Other cultures, no matter how advance, don’t idolize their likenesses in a stone doll. Furthermore, there are no other race that can kill one another with as much zest, devotion, cold-bloodedness, contentedness and vigor than the white man. The entirety of white man history has been war. However, they tend to reconcile with one another very quickly with not much bitterness; only to resume the killing at the next opportunity they had, and the next truce, and so on. Wars may have given the brutal white man his cutting edge in innovation, but the destruction gotten stronger and stronger. Fact: the white man – your 10% of human race – dragged the entire world into the most destructive global wars, TWICE, last century. The entire humanity almost did not survive. In fact the UN we have today is completely the White Man’s solution for his penchant for destruction. The weapons had gotten too strong, he can’t go on with killing spree anymore.

          • Dan Theman

            Whites are the only race that worships itself in art? What a load of bullocks. Every race has a history of that, even the Sub-Saharan Africans who are rightfully not even in this discussion…

            Or maybe it’s just the fact that you think European art was superior too? That’s why you see it as more of a homage to ‘race’ because of how complex & detailed European sculpting & art in general was.

          • Umschaltspiel KOP

            Nobody thinks “European art” is superior (than what anyway?). I just make an objective observation which certainly gets reaction from you because it is true.

            The European diversity in art is so incomparable to the richness of Asia’s great artistic traditions (think of the Dravidian Indian, the Chinese, Ankor Khmer, Japanese etc.). In fact the reason the European art is so in conformity with one another is because not many European cultures have their independent artistic traditions that can rival the classical style. Apart from the “Greek” (who I doubt think of themselves as Europeans in terms of art, for they inherited much from Egypt) and the Roman, no where in Europe produced any artistic cultural influence worth adopting. The Idea of “European culture” as a whole, I think, was invented in the Renaissance when the revival of classical art and knowledge of the ancient had the whole impact all over the continent and set the direction to what came after. But what I claim is that the Greek did worship their likeness and their own racial expression. And these are their “idols” — a sort of paganism which not even the more austere ideology of christianity could suppress.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Dude you’re so full of shit. All that baloney that you mentioned are outright lies.

            That’s only due to lies, deception, and outright savegery. Nothing smart came from europeans except to kill and that’s it.

          • Dan Theman

            & yet here you are using the white man’s language, computer, internet, & electricity….

            Fuck right off, don’t touch our inventions, & go back to living in caves if you think Europeans have contributed nothing. Delusional as fuck.

          • bobbyjacabson

            umm…no bitch. white man didn’t invent the Internet, nor the world wide web, nor the computer, nor electricity…

            fuck you too bitch don’t mess with the black inventions. don’t have a home security system, electricity, computer, don’t access the world wide web… go back to living in your caves and fuck any hole you see. that IS what you and your kind are good at. Bitch.

        • Under_Our_Noses

          trying to make yourself feel better? lol I thought the Crusades were all about the Christians going down to protect HOLY land from violent, murderous Muslims .. who knew they actually went there to learn!? ha ha your comments amuse me. Look at the big picture: Middle easterners wold all still be living in tents in the desert if the rich white European man didn’t want to burn up all their oil first before tapping into his own. from the industrial revolution, to the technological one, the ‘Western’ world has always been far ahead and typically dominant in those areas.

        • Donald J. Mouse

          “Most importantly, white European never invented any writing system. ALL writing systems – the most important of all human inventions – originated from Asia, Middle East and North Africa.”

          Actually, Cuneiform was the first examples of writing around 4000BCE…by the Sumerians; (who btw were Caucasians)…which spread east and was adopted by the East Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia and Akkadian which became the first Semitic language and would be used by the Babylonians and Assyrians. The Akkadian characters continued to represent syllables with defined vowels on to Egypt. In Egypt still no ‘writing’ existed but still relied on pictographs, (hieroglyphics) to tell a story. But, Egyptians were the first to develop a alphabet towards the end of the 4th millennium. Writing never originated from Asians, the Middle East, N. Africa, or beyond, period. Google Sumerians…..

          BTW, Sumerian history goes beyond the portals of just writing. They were the first agrarian society. They also have a ‘written’ history that goes back some 450K years with their King’s list.

          Sumerians were the forerunners of the Hebrews, as Biblical history shows Abram coming from Ur, a Sumerian city.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Sumerians were NOT and NEVER WILL BE white. Stupid.

      • DHN KING

        When you talk about “whites.” It means people of every where in Europe. Except the Balkans. This is where Balkano-Anatolids live. They live in Asia Minor and the South Caucus as well.

        When you look at images of the Golbeki Tepe and notice that they are from Turkey. Which is in Asia Minor. You notice Balkano-Anatolids originated in that particual region. They then spread into Thrace and then, into the Dinarides.

      • Aaron Litke

        meh. neandertals did have a larger brain size (~1500cc), but their brains were slightly different to ours, and we have none to do any studies on, so we will never know how the two compare. asians and north africans were building advanced civilizations prior to white people. anyways, when you mention “european” innovation, it is almost always jewish innovation. jews are the ones who have provided the modern world with half of the shit we utilize on a daily basis, despite being such a small percentage of the world population.

        • Shinobi

          North Africans are Caucasians. Especially before all the admixture with sub-Saharan Africans in more recent centuries. Native Berbers look white and are genetically very closely related to Europeans. Same goes for Persians and most other middle eastern people.

      • bobbyjacabson

        WRONG. Neanderthals were probably some of the dumbest of all of the generation of humans. Nothing progressive or intelligent came from them at all.

      • Mike

        Definitely an emergent property. Is it any wonder that all major civilization formed in the areas where there were neanderthal/denisovan mixing occurred?

      • hongsien kwee

        My oh my, you are so ignorant, you just need a minute to do a Google search for chinese inventions in the past, they have invented a lot more than you think. You only talk about the recent 100-150 years after the Industrial revolution, as with many things, that was when the chinese culture was already past its height, and was on the decline, as is happening now with the western civilisation. Most of the things you might think were western inventions were actually invented in Asia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

        • hongsien kwee

          Civilizations come and go, none can stay at the top for long, I read so many very racists comments below, is this the way to discuss a genetics project?

      • Donald J. Mouse

        Well, Asians did develop the making of gunpowder.

    • Mike

      Well actually 20% more is what was said, so out of Neanderthal DNA that is still retained over the world in non Africans, East Asians come closer to the higher end of that spectrum, meaning that they hold an extra 20% compared to the rest.

      • lucky9lives

        There you go!

    • lucky9lives

      Are you really that stupid sub human!

    • Rhea_202

      Neanderthal DNA is associated with an increased risk of developing skin corns and callosities, mood disorders and depression, overweight and obesity, upper respiratory and urinary tract infections, incontinence, hardening of the arteries and even smoking.
      SMH
      Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-10-heavy-price-neanderthals.html#jCp

    • Rob

      Blacks are dumb

      General intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among human races. IQ tests are designed to measure the general innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract and cognitive thinking, spatial-relations skills, and logical reasoning. They are designed to measure the ability to:

           •   solve novel problems
           •   retain knowledge and apply skills
           •   comprehend complex ideas
           •   plan and learn quickly and from experience
         
      IQ tests are not designed to measure how much a person has learned, but rather whether a person is capable of learning.

      Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

      It was discovered that people who did well on one mental test did well on others, regardless of their content. It was reasoned that different tests must draw on the same global capacity, and dubbed that capacity g, for general intelligence.

      Individual differences in general cognitive ability are reliably measured by IQ tests. IQ is strongly related, probably more than any other single measurable trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic and social variables. IQ is also correlated with a number of variables of the brain, including its size, electrical potentials, and rate of glucose metabolism during cognitive activity. Individual differences in adult IQ are largely genetic, with heritability of about 70 percent. So far, attempts to raise IQ by educational or psychological means have failed to show appreciable lasting effects on cognitive ability and scholastic achievement. The IQ distribution between Blacks and Whites is represented by two largely overlapping bell curves with their means separated by about 15 points, a difference not due to test bias. IQ has the same meaning and practical predictive validity for both groups. Tests do not create differences; they merely reflect them.

      The average score is set at 100, and everyone is rated accordingly. Expressed this way, IQs for a whole population can be arrayed on a single graph. Roughly two-thirds of all Americans fall between 85 and 115, in the fat midsection of the bell-shaped curve, and 95 percent score between 70 and 130.

      By computing a value known as the correlation coefficient, a scientist can measure the degree of association between any two phenomena that are plausibly linked. The correlation between unrelated variables is 0, while phenomena that vary in perfect lock step have a correlation of 1. A correlation of .4 would tell you that 40 percent of the variation in one thing is matched by variation in another, while 60 percent of it is not.

      Current estimates for heritability of IQ ranges up to 0.8 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated). See the Minnesota Twin Family Study, conducted from 1979 to 1999, which followed identical and fraternal twins who were separated at an early age for some fascinating revelations about the powerful influence of genes.

      Studies find no IQ correlation among grown adoptive siblings. But the typical correlations are roughly .35 for half siblings (who share a quarter of their genes), .47 for full siblings (who share half of their genes) and .86 for identical twins (who share all their genes).

      Millions of IQ tests and psychometric experiments conducted world-wide over 100 years have been normed for every conceivable variable and bias, yet demonstrate an intractable intellegence divide between Blacks and the other races. Blacks score lowest on every intelligence test ever devised, including “life”. There has never been an IQ test administered anywhere in the world where the racial rankings didn’t follow the same pattern; Asians, Whites, non-White Hispanics, and then finally Blacks.

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Racial activist groups have tried to create their own tests to demonstrate intellectual parity of the races and also attack the integrity of the existing tests and have hired anti-bias experts, but the rankings are always the same; African Blacks average a 70 IQ (only 2% of Whites score this low), but American Blacks average 85 due to mixing with Whites (28% on average), non-White Hispanics 87, Whites 100, Asians 106 and Ashkenazi Jews 115.

      Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category. In fact, only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Blacks are socially functional at 70 IQ because that is only one standard deviation below their mean; that equates to a White at 85 IQ.

      Even using tests created by Black psychologists and non-verbal tests designed to be culture-free and unbiased, no amount of testing or wishful thinking shows any improvement in Black IQ. Tests that only require the subject to push buttons in response to flashing lights or memorizing sequences of colored squares projected on a screen Blacks perform worse than Whites, and the gap increases as the patterns become more complicated. The test involves rows of colored squares where one from each row has to be matched with another. More complex images which have distinctive features linked by that feature to other images in an increasing number of rows.

      Another test is a list of numbers read aloud and the subject has to repeat them back in forward and reverse order. The subject is given a relevant fact that has to be considered when making otherwise simple manipulations of numbers and identify designated figures or characters in a given amount of time. The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      Raven’s Progressive Matrices is a completely non-verbal test of pattern recognition and reasoning and contains no culturally-specific information, African Blacks scored 70 IQ. Interestingly, the mixed-race students in South Africa had an IQ of 85 — the same as Blacks in the United States, Britain, and the Caribbean. This is a standard deviation above pure Blacks, but also a standard deviation below Whites.

      Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

      The IQ race gap doesn’t begin to correlate firmly with adult IQ until about age five, but studies reveal a one standard deviation race gap present by age three.

      In the United States, self-identified Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. The tests show a Black-White IQ difference of about 15 to 18 points (or about one standard deviation) which implies that between 11 and 16 percent of the black population have an IQ above 100 (the general population median). Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Graduate Record Examination as well as for tests of job applicants in the corporate sector and in the military.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 81; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low. Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black. These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      The IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140. Meanwhile one-in-83 Whites have an IQ above 140. So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses will outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

      For every one gifted Black there are 8 gifted Whites, 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed race.

      Incidentally, though the average IQ of East Asians is 6 points higher than the average non-Jewish White, the percentage distribution of East Asians with IQs above 140 is slightly lower. The reason for this is that the range of cognitive variation among Whites is greater than among East Asians. Specifically, Asians’ IQs are more clustered around the mean; therefore, Whites produce more geniuses, but also more morons.

      Psychometricians regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age, the scores generally agree with one another and across time.

      Standardized intelligence testing has been called one of psychology’s greatest successes and is the field’s most widely-used invention. Since standardized tests were first used to identify learning-impaired children in the early 1900s they have become one of the primary tools for identifying children with learning disabilities, they assist the military place new recruits, job screening and for evaluating professional athletes.

      Some occupations seek candidates within specific IQ ranges. There was a recent case where a police officer candidate was rejected after he scored too high on an intelligence test.

      The NFL famously uses the Wonderlic test in their scouting combines and the racial disparity is evident. Out of a perfect score of 50; offensive tackles=26, centers=25, quarterback=24; versus safeties=19, cornerbacks=18 and receivers=17.

      Black-White IQ Distribution (Google: racial IQ bell curve):

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       30% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the top 16% of Black intellectual elites are only as intelligent as the top 50% of Whites.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The same is true for other cognitive tests such as No Child Left Behind mandated state tests and NAEP tests. All of these cognitive tests show the same racial patterns in test score distribution with Ashkenazi Jews, East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans), and Whites showing higher scores than Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks showing lower scores.

      The scores on the SAT (especially the SAT-math) and the ACT are for all practical purposes interchangeable with IQ test scores. In 2005, 153,132 Black Americans took the SAT test. They made up 10.4 percent of all SAT test takers. But only 1,132 Black college-bound students scored 700 or above on the math SAT and only 1,205 scored at least 700 on the verbal SAT. On the math SAT, only 0.7 percent of all Black test takers scored at least 700 compared to 6.3 percent of all White test takers. Thus, Whites were nine times as likely as Blacks to score 700 or above on the math SAT. Only 0.16 percent of all Black test takers scored 750 or above compared to 1.8 percent of White test takers. Thus, Whites were more than 11 times as likely as Blacks to score 750 or above on the math SAT.

      This gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks, 185 to non-White Hispanics and penalize Asians by 50 points, all in an effort to help the low-IQ races gain admittance.

      A person’s level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence. Studies sequencing the stages of moral development support what we all know; you have to be cognitively mature to reason morally. IQ tests correlate with moral maturity.

      There is also a strong correlation between IQ and success. Economists have started taking an interest in the value of human capital, particularly the factor that psychologists call cognitive ability. In other words, it’s the ability of a person to solve a problem most efficiently. Not with violence, but by thinking. It is worth noting here that Blacks possess 9.4 times more of the dysfunctional MAOA gene (“warrior gene”) and have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites, both strongly correlated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      Researchers collected information on 90 countries, including far-off lands from the U.S. to New Zealand and Colombia to Kazakhstan. They also collected data on the country’s excellence in science and technology, including the number of patents granted per person and how many Nobel science laureates the country’s people had won in science (there has never been a Black Nobel science laureate).

      They found that intelligence made a difference in gross domestic product. For example, some of the highest National IQs:

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom

      And the lowest:

                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Liberia
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      Blacks are archaic proto-humans, a different species from Whites and Asians;

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals who lived in Europe. The trans-Saharan African migrants mated with the Neanderthals and Denisovans to create a composite hybrid that is modern man. Therefore, we do not share a common ancestor.

      The farther north the populations migrated out of Africa, the more they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, making clothes, and raising children during prolonged winters. Consequently, as the original African populations evolved into present-day Whites and Asians, they did so by hybridizing with Neanderthals which created larger brains and greater intelligence, but also slower rates of maturation, lower levels of sex hormones, and concomitant reductions in sexual potency and aggressiveness, and increases in family stability and social conformity.

      Neanderthals are a different species than Whites, and yet produced fertile offspring (as do many interspecies hybrids). In fact all modern humans (Whites and Asians) are products of that hybridization.

      Blacks have a genetic distance closer to archaic human than to modern human. That genetic distance is farther apart than it is for many species.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      The genetic distance between H.Sapien and H.Erectus is only 0.17, while the genetic distance between Blacks and Eurasians is 0.23. Therefore Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic humans than to modern man (Whites and Asians).

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between the Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black-White distance). Thus, Whites and Blacks are more genetically distant than two different chimpanzee species, two different gorilla species, Eurasians and Neanderthals, and Eurasians and H.Erectus.

      To be taxonomically consistent Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at the very least into different subspecies.

      When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals in southern Europe and created an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

      Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

           •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
           •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
           •   Asians = Neanderthal + Denisovan

      Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

      Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

      Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which partly explains why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

      However, Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early (and unknown) hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain “unknown” due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced, Only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

      Forensic scientists can determine race by cranium shape; Blacks have a small frontal lobe and sloping frontal plane and a smaller cranium-to-mandible ratio. Whites have the largest craniums, an almost vertical frontal slope and a massive frontal lobe. The Asian is very similar and also more evolved. It is the frontal lobe that separates our behavior most from the animals and is responsible for language and rational thought.

      Blacks show primitive traits associated with lower primates, such as prognathism, which is the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. A protruding jaw is associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition and self-control.

      Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, fur instead of hair, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

      At birth Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull and other bones in Blacks are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density. This is why their brains are smaller, and less complex.

      Eurasian women have a wider pelvic inlet, and shallower anteroposterior outlet than Black women due to the difference in brain size.

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Further, this reflects what we observe in real life (including the large and persistent so-called “Achievement Gap”). People have made long-term observations of the different races and reached rational conclusions; the more White a society is the more prosperous, inventive and safe it is. 19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). In sub-Saharan Africa the only countries that could be considered successful were White-governed, (Rhodesia and S. Africa). To this day they still can’t even feed themselves even though they lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources, for 60,000 years. So they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language (or even words for abstract ideas), weaved cloth, forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar or code of laws or any social organization, or system of measurement or math or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer or road or railway or a sea-worthy vessel, domesticated animals, exploited underground natural resources or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

           •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
           •   East Asians = 106
           •   Whites = 100
           •   South East Asians = 87
           •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
           •   American Blacks = 85 (average 28% White admixture)
           •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
           •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
           •   Australian Aborigines = 62

      Sub-Saharan Africans never even created a written language. It was the White colonialists who gave the gift of literacy to them.

      No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language or words for abstract ideas, weaved cloth, forged steel, invented the wheel or plow or devised a calendar or code of laws or any social organization or formal religion or system of measurement or math or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer or infrastructure of any kind and they never harnessed a river or even drilled well or irrigation or road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals or exploited underground natural resources, understood the biological origins of disease, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

      Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

      How could they live with all that shoreline and never think about putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did? Columbus sailed across the ocean 500 years ago — Blacks STILL are incapable of such a feat.

      19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites. There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

      Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

      The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population, it demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks. But a constantly A constantly dwindling number of Whites are at the mercy of a predatory welfare class and it’s possible they can’t and won’t carry the rest of the population. If things get worse for them, they will simply flee the country.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to build a sufficient infrastructure. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

      This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere.

      Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

      Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.
      Google: “race and IQ”, “national IQ”, “race and MAOA gene”, “Neanderthal DNA”, “smaller black brains”, “correlation brain size and IQ”, “achievement gap”, “IQ correlation to achievement”, “NIH Blacks 21% greater testosterone”, Cumoe, D. & Thorne, A. – 2003. Number of Ancestral Human Species: a Molecular Perspective, Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R (2005). “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability”, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 11 (2): 246–8, Current Biology, Vol. 13, R134–R136, February 18, 2003, ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. PII S0960-9822(03)00074-5; Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease — Genome Biology 2002.

      Racial brain size differences: Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review, Int J Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 119(5): 692–732, PMCID: PMC2668913. Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race. A NYT article that shows claims of racism in measuring skulls was false: Scientists Measure the Accuracy of a Racism Claim. Mismeasuring Skulls: New Research Resolves Historical Controversy, Shows Science Resists Bias; Stanford Department of Anthropology. Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits, J.Philippe Rushton, Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 2, March–April 2003, Pages 139–155. Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2, 235–294, Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235

      Genetic Distance:
      ESTIMATION OF THE COANCESTRY COEFFICIENT: BASIS FOR A SHORT-TERM GENETIC DISTANCE
      John Reynolds, B. S. Weir, C. Clark Cockerham
      Genetics November 1, 1983 vol. 105 no. 3 767-779

      Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective
      D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
      doi:10.1078/0018-442X-00051

      Heritibility of intelligence: Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 98–108; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.105; published online 16 September 2014, Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings; Common DNA Markers Can Account for More Than Half of the Genetic Influence on Cognitive Abilities, Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).

      One standard deviation racial IQ gap by age three: (Broman et al, Montie and Fagan, Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov and Duncan)

      • bobbyjacabson

        Pseudo-science bullshit by a low-life white trash little bitch.

    • Rob

      Where is the evidence of Black intelligence?

      Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent 10% of Whites have IQs below 80; 40% of Blacks do.

      Only one-in-six Blacks is more intelligent than the average White; five-in-six Whites are more intelligent than the average Black.

      Only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Or as the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      US-resident Blacks have higher intelligence than African Blacks due to the approximately 28% average White admixture.

      IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

           •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
           •   East Asians = 106
           •   Whites = 100
           •   South East Asians = 87
           •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
           •   American Blacks = 85 (average 28% White admixture)
           •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
           •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
           •   Australian Aborigines = 62

      Therefore, the IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no US-resident Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one US-resident Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140.

      So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

      That is why Blacks are incapable of creating a civilization; there simply are not enough smart Blacks to create an infrastructure for the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

      Racial intelligence differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      While some tirelessly criticize studies that show Black intelligence to be lower than White they can cite no Black performance that indicates high mean intelligence and instead insist that Black ability is present but hidden by bias. But everyday observation together with no evidence that the races are equal disconfirms racial parity.

      The positive relationship between IQ tests, academic tests and real-world observances demonstrates the existence of a general mental ability. How can there be group or individual differences in intelligence if there is no such trait?

      If the races are equal in intelligence then there should be evidence that they are; absence of such evidence is itself evidence that the races are not equal.

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      When similarly-performing Black, White and Asian children are compared for age Black children match White children two years younger, and Asian children three years younger.

      It is an ethological rule that the earlier and more regularly a phenomenon appears in a population the more likely it is genetically controlled. Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians; Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and therefore do not share a common ancestor with modern man. Blacks have 2% archaic admixture, Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Humans didn’t create a civilization until this hybridization. Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

      Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain unknown due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced; only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

      Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      We share 98.4 percent of our genes with chimpanzees, 95 percent with dogs, and 74 percent with microscopic roundworms. Only one chromosome determines if one is born male or female. There is no discernible difference in the DNA of a wolf and a Labrador retriever, yet their inbred behavioral differences are immense. Clearly, what’s meaningful is which genes differ and how they are patterned, not the percent of genes. A tiny number of genes can translate into huge functional differences.

      Modern man (Whites and Asians) has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Genetics determines the upper limit to IQ, but the environment dictates what percentage of your potential you will reach.

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

      No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion. or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures. How could they live with all that shoreline and never contemplate putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did?

      Blacks are the oldest race, they had a huge head-start so they should be the most advanced race; but they are the least advanced race. And in fact they never did develop until they were domesticated by Whites.

      19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites.

      There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

      Put Whites on an island and you get England; put Asians on an island and you get Japan; put Blacks on an island and you get Haiti.

      Nowhere Blacks live are they considered achievers. In fact they are universally viewed as unproductive and disruptive to society.

      Simply, life is an IQ test.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. For every one gifted Black there are eight gifted Whites. 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed-race.

      Today there are 738 million Europeans and 1.2 billion Africans. In 2050, according to the latest U.N. projections, Europe’s population will have dipped to 707 million, while Africa’s population will be 2.4 billion. By 2100, half of all children on earth will be African. On current trends, within 35 years, 1 in every 4 people will be sub-Saharan African. By 2100, there will be 4.4 billion Africans – two of every five human beings overall — and Europe’s population will be just 646 million.

      The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. The entire continent of Africa produces less than 1% of the world’s manufactured goods. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters of it. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks.

      Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to even build a sufficient infrastructure to allow for the Black intellectual elite to achieve. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

      Blacks cannot achieve on their own without the intervention of Whites giving them all the things they could never produce or maintain themselves. Without the continuous intervention of charity into Black Africa they could not even maintain what they have been given.

      All current Black civilization is in fact transplanted White civilization. There is no Black society on Earth that has independently developed and maintained its own technological way of life. All of the Black nations with the highest GDPs benefited from White-created enterprise to exploit their natural resources.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. But civilization didn’t begin until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume density.

      This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

      Slavery was the best thing to happen to Blacks. After defeating George Foreman for the heavyweight title in Zaire (now Congo), Muhammad Ali returned to the United States where he was asked by a reporter, “Champ, what did you think of Africa?” Ali replied, “Thank God my granddaddy got on that boat.”

      There hasn’t been a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world. Show me any community, city or state that is predominantly inhabited and run by Blacks anywhere in the world that is equal or superior to a comparable White one. By their fruits ye shall know them. Show me the fruits of that intelligence.

      “There is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.” Dr James Watson

      • bobbyjacabson

        Fuck you bitch. No proof of what you type at all. All that is pseudo-science.

    • Rob

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       30% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

      Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

      In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the Black mean IQ).

      ~~~~~

      Digit Span Tests

      In digit span tests, the respondents are asked to repeat a string of digits. There are two variants of the test, forward digit span (FDS) and backward digit span (BDS). In FDS, the digits are repeated in the order of their presentation, while in BDS they must be repeated in the reverse order. The largest number of digits that a person can repeat without error is his or her forward or backward digit span.

      That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

      Black-White Digit Span:

      Forward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
        0.01                 0.04                   0.16

      Backward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
       0.43                 0.31                  0.36

      It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

      The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      ~~~~~~~~~

      Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

      Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

      The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

      Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

      For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

      Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

      Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
      Hong Kong: 113
      Japan: 110
      Briton: 100
      Ireland: 89
      South Africa: 67

      Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
      Hong Kong: 787
      Japan: 818
      Briton: 898
      Ireland: 902
      South Africa: 924

      ~~~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

             Year              White             Black               Gap
             1986              1038               839                 199
             1990              1031               849                 185
             1996              1052               857                 195
             2000              1060               859                 201
             2005              1061               863                 197
             2010              1063               855                 208

      Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2012

      Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

      Abstract

      This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

      Frey MC, Detterman DK.

      PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

      ~~~~~

      New York Times, 2003:

      The SAT captures more than a narrow range of skills, important only in the first year or two of college. Large-scale meta-analyses by researchers at the University of Minnesota have found that SAT performance is as good of a predictor of overall college grade point average as it is of freshman grade point average, and Vanderbilt researchers David Lubinski and Camilla Benbow have documented that the SAT predicts life outcomes well beyond the college years, including income and occupational achievements.

      Furthermore, the SAT is largely a measure of general intelligence. Scores on the SAT correlate very highly with scores on standardized tests of intelligence, and like IQ scores, are stable across time and not easily increased through training, coaching or practice. SAT preparation courses appear to work, but the gains are small — on average, no more than about 20 points per section.

      ~~~~~

      ACT Scores by Race:

             Year              White             Black               Asian
             2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
             2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
             2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
            
      Source: ACT, Inc.

      Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

      In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

      This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

      ~~~~~~

      Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                       15% = Black
                       24% = Non-White Hispanic
                       35% = Native American
                       53% = White
                       56% = Asian               

      Source: The College Board, 2014

      ~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Income:

             Year              White              Black               Gap
             -$20k              978                 798                 180
             $40k               995                 836                 159
             $60k               1017               864                 153
             $80k               1032               889                 143
             $100k             1052               908                 144
             $120k             1066               922                 144
             $140k             1073               926                 147
             $160k             1087               942                 145
             $200k             1091               943                 148
             +200k             1130               981                 149

      Source: The College Board, 2008

      So, Blacks from families earning more than $200k only scored 3 points higher than Whites from families earning less than $20k.

      We will continue with racial preferences in college admissions and job hiring. We will continue to blame black underachievement on racism. We will continue to dumb down education and occupational standards in order to achieve higher proportions of Blacks.

      Differences in intelligence between income groups are not larger than intelligence differences between racial groups in the US, nor do differences in income or wealth account for the racial differences. Whites from households in the lowest income bracket have higher IQ scores than blacks from households in the highest income bracket.

      Black students coming from families earning over $70,000 USD are doing worse on their SATs on average than White students from families in the lowest income group.

      One of the largest modern sociology studies of American students found that ethnicity was the single most important predictor of academic achievement:

      “Beyond the Classroom,” by Laurence Steinberg, B. Bradford Brown and Sanford M. Dornbusch, concludes “Of all the demographic factors we studied in relation to school performance, ethnicity was the most important. In terms of school achievement, it is more advantageous to be Asian than to be wealthy, or to have non-divorced parents, or to have a mother who is able to stay at home full time.”

      A number of experiments are able to test all of these environmental theories. Transracial adoption experiments control for all the shared aspects of the environment that differ between Whites and Blacks (parenting, income, nutrition, neighborhood), while structural equation models test for possible uncommon factors between Whites and Blacks that could be acting on IQ (which would include things like racism). These experiments do not lend support to any existing or plausible environmental theories for the remaining lower intelligence scores of people of African descent in Western societies. The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study found that, by adulthood, the difference in IQ scores between adopted black and adopted White children raised side by side in the same high income households in mostly homogeneous Northern US upper class neighborhoods was 18 IQ points.

      ~~~~~~~

      The large and persistent so-called “achievement gap” has remain steady since it was first observed.

      Evidence of the racial achievement gap has been manifested through standardized test scores, high school dropout rates, high school completion rates, college acceptance and retention rates, and longitudinal trends.

      It has been found to exist before students enter kindergarten for their first year of schooling. At the start of kindergarten, Black students have math and reading scores substantially lower than those of White students. In a study published in 2009, Reardon and Galindo (2009) specifically examine test scores by race. The data comes from the ECLS-K, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. The ECLS-K contains data on a nationally representative sample of approximately 21,400 students from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999. Students in the sample were assessed in reading and mathematics skills six times from 1998 to 2004. The content areas of the tests are based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) fourth-grade content areas, adapted to be age appropriate at each grade level. The assessments were scored using a three-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Reardon and Galindo found that average Black students begin kindergarten with math scores three quarters of a standard deviation lower than those of White students. Six years later the gap widens by about a third.

      The racial group differences across admissions tests, such as the SAT, ACT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT, Advanced Placement Program examinations and other measures of educational achievement, have been consistent. Since the 1960s, the population of students taking these assessments has become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the examination of ethnic score differences have been more rigorous. Specifically, the largest gaps exist between White and Black students. On average, Blacks score about .82 to 1.18 standard deviations lower than White students in composite test scores.

      The National Assessment of Educational Progress reports the national Black-White gap in math and reading assessments, measured at the 4th and 8th grade level. The trends show the achievement gaps staying the same.

      ~~~~~~~

      Racial Scoring Gap on Standardized Graduate Tests

      — Black Student Score Results on the Medical College Admission Test

      In 2005 the mean combined score for Black students who took the Medical College Admission Test was 21.2. (Each of the three sections of the MCAT test is scored on a scale of 1 to 15.) For Whites, the mean score on the combined three portions of the MCAT test was 28.5. Therefore, the White score was about 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Test for Admission to Business School

      The mean Black score on the GMAT was 425. (The test is scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for each section of the SAT test.) For Whites, the mean GMAT score was 532. This is 107 points or 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      The average GMAT score for admitted students at the nation’s leading business schools is over 700. Perhaps only 1 or 2 percent of all Black GMAT test takers score at this level. Therefore, without continuing affirmative action admissions programs at Harvard, Penn, Stanford, Northwestern, MIT, and other top MBA programs, the nation’s leading business schools will have very few Black students.

      The latest JBHE survey shows that Blacks make up about 5 percent of the students at the nation’s leading business schools. If affirmative action admissions programs were to be discontinued, Black enrollments at these schools might drop by 75 percent.

      — Very Few Blacks Score at the Highest Levels of the Law School Admission Test

      In 1998 the mean score of White students taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was 151.96. (The LSAT is graded on a scoring scale of 120 to 180.) The mean score for Black students taking the test that year was 141.80, about 17 percent lower than the mean score of Whites.

      The latest data shows a slight improvement for both Blacks and Whites, but there was no progress in closing the racial scoring gap. In 2004 the mean score for Whites on the LSAT was 152.47. For Blacks, the mean score was 142.43. The 10 point, or 17 percent, scoring gap has remained constant throughout the period with only very minor fluctuations.

      Students seeking admission to the nation’s highest-ranked law schools such as Yale, Harvard, and Stanford have a mean LSAT score of about 170. Data obtained by JBHE from the Law School Admission Council shows that very few Blacks nationwide score at this level.

      In 2004, 10,370 Blacks took the LSAT examination. Only 29 Blacks, or 0.3 percent of all LSAT test takers, scored 170 or above. In contrast, more than 1,900 White test takers scored 170 or above on the LSAT. They made up 3.1 percent of all White test takers. Thus Whites were more than 10 times as likely as Blacks to score 170 or above on the LSAT. There were 66 times as many Whites as Blacks who scored 170 or above on the test.

      Even if we drop the scoring level to 165, a level equal to the mean score of students enrolling at law schools ranked in the top 10 nationwide but not at the very top, we still find very few Blacks. There were 108 Blacks scoring 165 or better on the LSAT in 2004. They made up 1 percent of all Black test takers. For Whites, there were 6,689 test takers who scored 165 or above. They made up 10.6 percent of all White students who took the LSAT examination.

      The nation’s top law schools could fill their classes exclusively with students who scored 165 or above on the LSAT. But if they were to do so, these law schools would have almost no Black students.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Graduate Record Examination

      The vast majority of Black graduate students do not attend professional schools of law, business, or medicine. Most Black students are enrolled in graduate programs in other academic disciplines including education, natural sciences, mathematics, foreign languages, the humanities, the arts, history, psychology, and the social sciences. For these students the important test is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

      This test begins with two analytical writing sections, one where the student is given a choice of topics. The analytical writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Then there is a 30-minute verbal reasoning test and a 45-minute quantitative section. The test is given on a computer terminal and the test is adaptive, meaning that the test questions are selected based on correct or incorrect responses to previous questions. These two sections are scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for the SAT test.

      Each year about 300,000 college students seeking admission to graduate programs in fields such as education, the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences sit for the GRE. In 2003, the latest year for which there is complete data available, 27,267 Blacks took the GRE test. Therefore, Blacks made up 8.8 percent of all students who took the GRE.

      In 2003 the mean score for Blacks on the combined verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE was 821. For Whites, the mean combined score was 1062. Thus the mean White score was 241 points, or 20 percent, higher than the mean score for Blacks. This racial scoring gap is even wider than the persistent and growing gap on the SAT test.

      In 2003 the mean Black score on the analytical writing section was 3.7 on a scale of 0 to 6. For Whites, the mean score was 4.5, a difference of about 13 percent. There is no way to compare the trend in the gap on this portion of the GRE because the 0 to 6 scale was recently instituted. Previously the analytical section of the test was scored on the 200 to 800 scale.

      The GRE scoring gap between Blacks and Whites varies to a large degree depending on the field of proposed study in graduate school. Black students planning to study in the field of engineering scored on average 187 points below whites who plan to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. In the physical sciences, Black students on average scored 247 points below Whites.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Effects of Affirmative Action

      Quota admittees drop out more often, avoid college science and math, and flunk post-graduation professional tests.

      The SAT scores of White applicants to U.S. colleges and universities have been, on average, about 200 points higher than those of their Black counterparts. Nonetheless, Black students have been admitted to virtually all academically competitive schools at much higher rates than Whites. At Amherst College in 1995, for instance, 51 percent of Black applicants were admitted vs. just 19 percent of White applicants. At Rice University that same year, the corresponding numbers were 52 percent and 25 percent for Blacks and Whites, respectively. At Bowdoin College, the figures were 70 percent and 30 percent.

      At the five most elite American, Black applicants whose SAT scores fell within the 1200 to 1249 range had a 60 percent chance of admission, whereas Whites with similar scores had just a 19 percent chance.

      At medical schools the situation is much the same. The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores of Blacks who are accepted are actually lower than those of Whites who are rejected. At the University of Maryland Medical School in 2000, Blacks with college GPAs of B or B+ and MCAT scores in the bottom half of all test-takers had a 70 percent chance of admission; for Whites and Asians of similar credentials, the chance was 2 percent.

      At America’s top law schools, Blacks are admitted at fully 17 times the rate that a colorblind process would allow. At UCLA Law School in 1994, a Black applicant with a college GPA between 2.5 and 3.5, and an LSAT score between 60 and 90, had a 61 percent chance of admission. The corresponding rates for similarly qualified Asians and Whites were 7 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Consider also Texas Law School, which in 1992 rejected 668 White applicants before rejecting a single Black. Fully 100 percent of Blacks who scored between 189 and 192 in the school’s academic rating system were admitted, as compared to just 6 percent of Whites.

      So-called “diversity degrees” were created with soft curricula to allow Blacks an easier opportunity to earn a degree than is possible in the hard sciences.

      College majors with the highest percentage of Whites (63% of U.S. population):

             Forestry: 93% White
             Natural Resources Management: 92% White
             Agriculture Production and Management: 92% White
             Plant Science and Agronomy: 92% White
             Nuclear Engineering: 91% White
             Animal Sciences: 91% White
             Soil Science: 91% White
             Miscellaneous Agriculture: 90% White
             Agricultural Economics: 90% White
             Art and Music Education: 90% White

      College majors with the highest percentage of Asians (6% of U.S. population):

             Computer Engineering: 33% Asian
             Statistics and Decision Science: 30% Asian
             Neuroscience: 27% Asian
             Biomedical Engineering: 26% Asian
             Other Foreign Languages: 26% Asian
             Electrical Engineering: 22% Asian
             Military Technologies: 22% Asian
             Biochemical Sciences: 20% Asian
             Applied Mathematics: 20% Asian
             Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration: 20% Asian

      College majors with the highest percentage of Blacks (14% of U.S. population):

             School Student Counseling: 38% Black
             Human Services and Community Organization: 21% Black
             Counseling Psychology: 20% Black
             Health and Medical Administrative Services: 18% Black
             Public Administration: 18% Black
             Social Work: 16% Black
             Miscellaneous Social Sciences: 16% Black
             General Medical and Health Services: 15% Black
             Public Policy: 15% Black

      • bobbyjacabson

        More pseudo-science bullshit. Bitch.

    • Rob

      Blacks have small brains

      Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      ~~~~~~~~~~

      Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

      AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

      ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

      2015, October

      PMID: 26449760

      ~~~~~~~~

      Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

      Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

      “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

      1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

      2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

      4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

      6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

      -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

      Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

      Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

      The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

      Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

      The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

      Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

      “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

      “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

      Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

      The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

      “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

      “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

      Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

      – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
      – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

      On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

      Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

      Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

      In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

      That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

      Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

      This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

      Sources:

      Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

      Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

      Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

      Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

      Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

      Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

      Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

      Cranial Capacities:

      Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

      Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

      Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

      Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

      Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

      Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

      Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                  

      ————–

      Abstract:

      Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

      General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

      Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Intelligence

      Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

      Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
      Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

      Abstract

      An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

      Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Arthur R. Jensen, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

      • bobbyjacabson

        Bitch go fuck yourself. You white people are some of the most dumbest on this planet.

    • Rob

      Blacks are violent

      Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

      If the homicide rate for the country as a whole were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

      Black males age 18-35 are only 4% of the U.S. population, yet commit 50% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

      Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

      In 2013, according to FBI statistics, Blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against Whites, whereas Whites committed only 99,403 violent crimes against Blacks. This means Blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving Blacks and Whites. By age 23, half of Blacks males have been arrested.

      Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

      Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

      The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

      According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

      That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

      Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

      It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

      The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

      Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

      Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~

      Abstract:

      A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

      Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

      ~~~

      Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

      Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

      ABSTRACT:

      A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

      RESULTS:

      The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

      CONCLUSIONS:

      Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

      Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

      PMID: 20152292

      ~~~

      Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

      Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

      PMID: 3455741

      ~~~~~~~~

      The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

      Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

      Abstract

      There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

      PMID: 24326626

      ~~~~~~~~

      Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

      Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

      Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

      Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

      Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

      Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

      Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

      Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

      Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

      Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

      ~~~~~~~~

      MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

      The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

      But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

      More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

      Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

      Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

      ~~~~~

      Mass and Serial Killers

      Mass Killers:

      There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

      45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

      Per capita:

      Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
      Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
      Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
      Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
      Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

      Serial Killers:

      According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

      Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

      As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

      Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

      According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

      Child Molesters:

      Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

      There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

      % of total child abusers:

      White                            51%
      African American                 25%
      Hispanic                         15%
      American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
      Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

      Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
      American Indian    +100%
      Blacks             +92%
      Hispanics          no difference
      Whites             -35%
      Asian              -67%

      ~~~~~

      FBI Table 43 (2013)

      Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

      Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

      Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

      • bobbyjacabson

        Bitch go fuck yourself. White are the most evil, vile bastards this planet has ever known thus far.

    • Rob

      Google: National IQ Congo

      ….then: IQ Koko the gorilla

      LOL

      IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy and infant mortality.

      It is estimated that a minimum IQ of 90 is required just to maintain a technological society.

      The more White a society is the more successful (safe and prosperous) it is.

      The following intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ`s are assumed to form a normal probability distribution (“bell curve”) with the standard deviation set at 15.

      National IQ correlates at 0.73 with living standard.

      Each 10 point increase in IQ generally doubles economic growth, assuming the country has a market economy:

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom
                •   99        Belgium
                •   99        Canada
                •   99        Estonia
                •   99        Finland
                •   99        Germany
                •   99        New Zealand
                •   99        Poland
                •   99        Sweden
                •   98        Andorra
                •   98        Australia
                •   98        Czech Republic
                •   98        Denmark
                •   98        France
                •   98        Hungary
                •   98        Latvia
                •   98        Spain
                •   98        United States
                •   97        Belarus
                •   97        Malta
                •   97        Russia
                •   97        Ukraine
                •   96        Moldova
                •   96        Slovakia
                •   96        Slovenia
                •   96        Uruguay
                •   95        Israel
                •   95        Portugal
                •   94        Armenia
                •   94        Georgia
                •   94        Kazakhstan
                •   94        Romania
                •   94        Vietnam
                •   93        Argentina
                •   93        Bulgaria
                •   92        Greece
                •   92        Ireland
                •   92        Malaysia
                •   91        Brunei
                •   91        Cambodia
                •   91        Cyprus
                •   91        Lithuania
                •   91        Thailand
                •   90        Albania
                •   90        Bosnia
                •   90        Chile
                •   90        Croatia
                •   90        Kyrgyzstan
                •   90        Turkey
                •   89        Cook Islands
                •   89        Costa Rica
                •   89        Laos
                •   89        Mauritius
                •   89        Serbia
                •   89        Suriname
                •   88        Ecuador
                •   88        Mexico
                •   88        Samoa
                •   87        Azerbaijan
                •   87        Bolivia
                •   87        Brazil
                •   87        Guyana
                •   87        Indonesia
                •   87        Iraq
                •   87        Myanmar
                •   87        Tajikistan
                •   87        Turkmenistan
                •   87        Uzbekistan
                •   86        Kuwait
                •   86        Philippines
                •   86        Seychelles
                •   86        Tonga
                •   85        Cuba
                •   85        Eritrea
                •   85        Fiji
                •   85        Kiribati
                •   85        Peru
                •   85        Trinidad and Tobago
                •   85        Yemen
                •   84        Afghanistan
                •   84        Bahamas
                •   84        Belize
                •   84        Colombia
                •   84        Iran
                •   84        Jordan
                •   84        Marshall Islands
                •   84        Micronesia
                •   84        Morocco
                •   84        Nigeria
                •   84        Pakistan
                •   84        Panama
                •   84        Paraguay
                •   84        Saudi Arabia
                •   84        Solomon Islands
                •   84        Uganda
                •   84        United Arab Emirates
                •   84        Vanuatu
                •   84        Venezuela
                •   83        Algeria
                •   83        Bahrain
                •   83        Libya
                •   83        Oman
                •   83        New Guinea
                •   83        Syria
                •   83        Tunisia
                •   82        Bangladesh
                •   82        Dominican Republic
                •   82        India
                •   82        Lebanon
                •   82        Madagascar
                •   82        Zimbabwe
                •   81        Egypt
                •   81        Honduras
                •   81        Maldives
                •   81        Nicaragua
                •   80        Barbados
                •   80        Bhutan
                •   80        El Salvador
                •   80        Kenya
                •   79        Guatemala
                •   79        Sri Lanka
                •   79        Zambia
                •   78        Congo
                •   78        Nepal
                •   78        Qatar
                •   77        South Africa
                •   76        Cape Verde
                •   76        Congo
                •   76        Mauritania
                •   76        Senegal
                •   74        Mali
                •   74        Namibia
                •   73        Ghana
                •   72        Tanzania
                •   71        Central African Republic
                •   71        Grenada
                •   71        Jamaica
                •   71        St Vincent, Grenadines
                •   71        Sudan
                •   70        Antigua, Barbuda
                •   70        Benin
                •   70        Botswana
                •   70        Rwanda
                •   70        Togo
                •   69        Burundi
                •   69        Cote d’Ivoire
                •   69        Ethiopia
                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Angola
                •   68        Burkina Faso
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Djibouti
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Dominica
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Guinea-Bissau
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Lesotho
                •   67        Liberia
                •   67        Saint Kitts
                •   67        Sao Tome
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   62        Saint Lucia
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:

      Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)

      Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and

      Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)

      34 of the 47 LDCs are sub-Saharan African. There are a combined 48 sub-Saharan countries with a total population of one billion earning an annual per capita GDP of $1,720 in 2014 USD and a life expectancy of 57 years.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. Civilization didn’t advance until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      • bobbyjacabson

        Bitch go fuck yourself.

    • Rob

      Primitive Traits

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces than Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      In a combination of 19 studies on Black and White brain sizes, every single one shows Whites with a significantly larger brain size than Blacks. The calculated average White brain is 1398g and 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1275g and 1343cc – 91% and 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks, nor has any study shown anywhere close to equal brain size or structure for Blacks and Whites.

      The White brain has a high degree of fissuring (higher complexity) and the Black brain has a lower degree of fissuring (lower complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Blacks have smaller skulls than Whites and a lower brain capacity. The long, narrow skull of Blacks is superior at dissipating heat and the more spherical skulls of Whites better retains heat which is explainable by the fact that Blacks evolved in a hot climate (Africa) and Whites evolved in a cold climate (Europe).

      Prognathism, the absence of “Facial flatness”, is significantly higher in Blacks than Whites and even higher in apes. The facial angle for Whites is 82°, 70° for Blacks as well as H.Habilis and H.Erectus, and 60° for gorillas. Prognathism is associated with a sloping forehead, which corresponds to a smaller frontal lobe, which is the part of the brain responsible for abstract and conceptual thinking.

      Blacks have higher rates of primitive traits compared to Whites. Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

      One can undeniably attribute the vast majority of these traits more strongly to chimpanzees, gorillas, H.Erectus, and archaic H.Sapiens compared to modern anatomical humans, hence justifying the label “Primitive.”

      The dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer, it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.

      The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle.

      The most noticeable difference is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap.

      At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million years ago when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis.

      The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. Comparing black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls, the black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity.

      The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

      The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians, less so in Asians and small or absent in Africans. The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine.

      Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable.

      Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. The facial angle is 70° for the “Black” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. Orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. A facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty. Africans have “remarkable prognathism.”

      A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence.

      In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. The gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle. African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.

      A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy.

      The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. As usual, Blacks are closest to the apes. Note that the Blacks and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. Overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth, and Asians the lowest.

      Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. A “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, is characteristic of pongids [apes] and is frequent in Africans, among whom it appears to be a primary character.

      The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. This is one reason why Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.

      Blacks have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Blacks’ lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners.

      The hair of a Black is black, crispy, and “woolly” in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Whites.

      The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposing the red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

      The arms and legs of the Black are relatively longer than the White. The humerus is shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

      The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

      The Black has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than Whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

      The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

      Black skin has a thick superficial layer which resists scratching and impedes the penetration of germs.

      The Black has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

      The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

      The ears of Blacks are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

      The Black is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the White more powerfully developed in the chest.

      The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Whites.

      The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

      The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

      The brain of the Black on the average is 9% smaller than Whites.

      The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the White race.

      The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Black than in the White and thus more characteristic of an ape.

      The femur of the Black is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

      The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the White.

      The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more closely related to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      This is intuitive because we understand that humans evolved from Blacks in Africa.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthal (Blacks have 2% archaic admixture). Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Modern man has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Blacks also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      • Hans

        Hey,

        Do you have the source for this?
        Sounds quite interesting..

      • bobbyjacabson

        Go fuck yourself with that pseudo-science bullshit. You white people are so fucking stupid it’s funny.

    • bobbyjacabson

      Not true at all about “…it is often black supremacists who go out of their way to point out that they are pure” Yes I know this post is 2 years old. But so what.

  • Jack Nick Olsen

    How to Abbreviate ‘Doctor’

    Right: Dr.
    Wrong: Dr

  • Rufrignkidnme

    Wait, I was told there was no genetic differences between races and that even the concept of race was a social construct? what is the truth?

    • Bangus Balut

      lol

      They like to tell us we are all the same. Race is only skin deep. They why is my Asian wife a foot shorter than me? With a small, round head? Massive cheekbones? Slender rib cage? Flat nose?

      When I was a kid, they also did not teach that we are “all from Africa”! lol What a crock!

      • JimBob Seeker

        You make your wife sound rather unattractive. Why could you not find a better looking wife? Do you find the traits you mention attractive? If so, then this is sexual selection at work.

      • AdaLovelace

        Wow, you sound so racist why are you even married to an Asian woman?

        • roger

          How tf is it racist to point out differences? You sound like Al Sharpton…

          • WH

            Racist as he is generalizing an entire race to one rigid appearance despite variations within groups. It’s like saying all whites have huge Jewish noses, square jaw double chins, deep resided eye sets and budging caveman foreheads.

            He’s also pretending to have an Asian wife to hide from backlash.

          • KillerClownfromOuterspace

            Obviously as we can all tell the difference between races (white people are white, etc), so your definition is in error.

            Racists believe one race is superior to the other. The problem is, we all see instances in different races in different arenas where it is obviously true unless there is obvious racism in professional sports. Anyone who isn’t racist is either poorly informed or self deluded.

          • WH

            The previous poster inquired in what manner was poster Bangus post racist. I didn’t give a definition of racism, but a description of Bangus post. He is using his wife as a standard for all east Asian people. By his logic, we can’t tell brad bit apart from Jim carrey, despite the two looking quite different. Inferiority and superiority is one aspect of racism as much as stereotyping, and discrimination.

            You are assuming I don’t think there are racial differences in appearances and neglected my point on individual differences.

            Jeremy Lin lacked the opportunities in NBA precisely due to the mindset you have.

          • KillerClownfromOuterspace

            It depends on what you define as the principle characteristics. Using your set, every person would be a different race. Brad and Jim are likely closely related genetically.

            I don’t have a mindset. I see patterns and demographics while trying to understand the underlying cause. For instance, could black professional sports players be more likely to use performance enhancing drugs. There is also a chance that racism is going on in the selection of players. But it is also as likely that they are performing better whether through stamina or just plain speed.

            The point being, until we start looking we will never understand. But acting like there aren’t differences is stupidity. You can’t judge a book by it’s cover but patterns do exist in larger populations.

          • WH

            Again, you are assuming things. I had never mentioned that there aren’t racial differences. People recognize Brad Pitt and Jim Carrey because they are individuals, Individual variations.

            My post is a reply to the flawed perception of a rigid standard that generalizes an entire population. Sure there are universals (hair color, eye color etc) within a population, but not to the extent Bangus was implying nor Bangus’s description was applicable to all individuals within a population. Example, the differences between Brad Pitt, Jim Carrey, Matt Damon.

            Racial differences doesn’t mean uniform racial standard.

          • KillerClownfromOuterspace

            Seems you are trying to split the hair multiple times. You can generalize over medium to large populations and make predictions based on demographics and past history that are fairly accurate. Some predictions will be accurate for small populations.

          • WH

            I do understand your point, but your post seems to be splitting hairs to what you think I am saying. In layman terms, you are putting words in my mouth that aligns with your reasoning rather than trying to understand my point. I do think there are patterns of racial differences, but racial differences does not mean rigid uniformity within populations. The operative word is “some”. Some predications will be accurate for small populations.

          • KillerClownfromOuterspace

            Not to belabor the point but it would depend on what we consider rigid uniformity. But, alls good and I think I do get your point. We are just arguing over the grayness.

          • Blackfire

            Orrrrr…. they’re just not white

          • GDD

            Most jews do have huge noses and have a particular set of features that makes them identifiable, all thanks to centuries of interbreeding with each other.. because they are the “chosen ones”

          • WH

            A substantial amount of non Jews have large noses comparable to the Jewish archtype. Notable examples, Tom cruise, Owen Wilson, Zachary Quinto, Matthew McConaughey etc.

            However, I do agree with your statement that interbreeding can lead to a particular set of features in a population, particular the Jewish.

          • GDD

            It is not just the nose.. as i said before, it is a particular set of features that gives most of the Juden away

          • WH

            Can you tell who is Jewish among a crowd of Caucasians? During WW2, Jewish people were distinguished apart from the Germans by identity papers and yellow star armbands, material identification rather than observable characteristics.

            Your point would be somewhat true with small isolated rural Jewish groups, who interbreed to keep their blood line. However, the greater the population size the higher individual variation within the population.

          • bobbyjacabson

            No, more like david duke get it right.

        • GDD

          what an brainwashed moron.. anyore who points out races are different is “racist”

      • WH

        Europeans have all those features you mentioned.

      • Annette

        You do know there are Africans with same features as Asians right? Don’t believe me, google Khoisan people and for Pete’s sake, please get some education before making such ignorant statements.

      • lucky9lives

        We are all from Africa the modern human

      • 42tribes

        Its because because people can give birth to any albino trait but only people with dark skin can sire dark skin.

    • Donotask

      The truth is to tune out your university professors who are forced to teach false information from books written by people with political agendas. Race being a social construct is probably one of the most obscene lie being pushed today. Society is a racial construct. Race is very scientifically real Chicken Little, just as the sky never falling down on you is. Go read “The Emperor’s New Clothes”. It will help put into perspective current university curriculum and political media messages. Everyone too afraid right now to say or teach true science. Even blood is categorized by race to reduce adverse reaction in recipients. We are different species, and it’s all good. However, political forces seem to want to get rid of the Panda, the polar bear, and in fact all the bears to just have one bear. These are weird times.

      • Annette

        “Even blood is categorized by race to reduce adverse reaction in recipients.” Oh really? And how is that?

    • James Ferlong

      You were told all men are created equal. It was a lie.

      • bobbyjacabson

        No, it’s true.

    • 42tribes

      Race is 100 percent opinion.

      • Rob

        Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthals. That’s why they have smaller brains and lower IQs.

        Anthropologists can determine race simply by examining a skull.

        • 42tribes

          Not true.

          Yoruba
          http://www.rhesusnegative.net/staynegative/neanderthal-dna-discovered-within-the-yoruba-people-of-africa/

          The ancestors of Yoruba…
          Massai
          http://www.genetics.org/content/early/2013/02/04/genetics.112.148213

          Khoisan and other tribes
          http://anthropogenesis.kinshipstudies.org/2013/10/neandertal-admixture-in-africans-a-back-migration-confirmed/

          all of the Nenaderthals tested for pigment were found to be black people.

          Have you ever heard of a race defined by skull shape? I never heard of a foreheadian or slackjawian race. Anything that is used is based on opinion. I would never look at someone and think, I need to xray their head to classify them someone else might have a different opinion.

          • Rob

            “Yoruba”

            Did you read your source?

            (doi:10.1038/nature12886):

            First of all, it’s a different species, the Altai Neandertal.

            “We note that the observation that the Neandertal DNA sequences in non-Africans share more derived alleles with the Neandertal from the Caucasus than with Neandertals from either Croatia or the Altai indicates that the archaic gene flow into non-Africans occurred at a time when Neandertal populations had separated from each other.”

            Also, the DNA is trace amounts.

            “These and other results show that the allele sharing between Neanderthals and non-African populations is due to recent admixture rather than ancient population subdivision, an alternative which we and others considered possible.”
            Remember, Whites (Phoenicians) circumnavigate Africa 3,000 years ago. It would be wholly unsurprising that they mated with some Blacks along the way.
            But Neanerthals themselves never ventured anywhere near Africa.

          • 42tribes

            I figured you were on some entry level white supremacist stuff with your Neanderthal brain/IQ theory now you done went and white washed the Phoenicians. I guess everyone is white now… well technically that is true since anyone can produce albinos and everyone has white palms. I honestly don’t read much on Phoenicians but I look at their art and the art of the people they are supposedly related to like the ancient Egyptians and the handful of primary source Carthaginian art. I’m wondering where you are getting this from. Did Herodotus or someone say Phoenicians were white? It also conflicts with your theory of them bringing Neanderthal to genes to Africa. The Yoruba sample is used because it’s relatively pure African by mainstream definitions. If Phoenicians were as genetically different from Yoruba as ‘white’ people they would have made them less pure by mainstream defs.

            My theory is that Yoruba got it from Maasai. The Yoruba trace their history to the east. The signature is found outside of Africa (could be false positives), the Maasai are ancestral to them and the Maasai appear to be 0.5-1% Neanderthal. I say appear because everything initially reported about Neanderthals is typically wrong which is why my main take from the study was how it cross references with others studys and information about Yoruba.

            If you are on some entry level white supremacist stuff I would suggest avoiding white Egypt too. The internet and ancestry test have cooked that one dry. It’s like a bad turkey.

          • Rob
          • 42tribes

            I think black people are genius. Just dumbed down with Abrahamic religions. They were conquered and thereby socially engineered. I’m starting to see that white supremacy produced a system that miseducates. Black people are under resourced in that system. They haven’t inoculated themselves enough. When they do inoculate themselves they tend go through a period where they still can’t think for themselves. In general, if they make it out of that period as critical thinkers their genius is unsurpassed. My best teachers are black. The problem is ignorance and a lack of intellectual curiosity more than stupid. White people on the other hand are stupid. I’m generalizing. There is plenty genius among them but the way they miseducate everyone including themselves is stupid.

            You give a black man a blunt with some good weed a nice piece of ass, happy tales about Jesus and Mohammed and they wont do nothing to interfere with white supremacy. They wont even count the money to know it exist, and will argue with you if you tell them it does.

            The only reason black people created western civ by proxy of ancient Egypt is because their animist temples were the shizzznat. For every one of those gods was a science. That’s why the Greek playas came there to study in the temples. That’s why white supremacist have a need to white wash Egypt… and Greece, Rome and ancient Cannen too.

            Yet white people are so stupid, instead of popping their collars and bowing to their forefathers they committed all manors of human rights violations against them. Even today I would argue that racism is taught, partially to justify human rights violations and to maintain power. It’s bad social engineering. Your articles are examples. I should say article because they both referenced the same study however one of them did a recreation.

            The articles are based on a full genome test that argues that one person had European ancestry based on one rare maternal sub-haplogroup that is found in Europe and North Africa. The person wasn’t found in the homeland of Phoenicia but in Carthage after Roman invasion. It was a Phoenician port, but what does that mean? Not everyone walking around in China Town America are Chinese. I read that Phoenician’s were cremators too so we probably shouldn’t expect to get any reliable ancestry test. The best we can do is test around them and since this is a Carthaginian I’ll accept this person as being at least 1/3.

            But then there are more issues with the narrative in these articles especially the one with the recreation. Haplogroups are multiracial. Vin Diesel has a black daddy or black grand pappy from whom he inherited an African haplogroup. If he had a son with someone with albine pigment that kid would pass as white all day every day in America with a haplogroup that is 99% and diaspora.

            The haplogroup in the study was more Afropean than Eurasian but the narrative presented it as such and did not compare it with any North African samples. Euros have a larger data base of said samples but they rarely preface those implications in their narrative. Why just the maternal side for a man? And why this conjecture about European ancestry for a sub haplogroup that descends in theory from Africasia? Its bro and sis branches are all throughout North and west Africa out to east Asia. Why no SNP or STR test? I could rock with that, even if the dude could be Roman. Why no pigment test, and speaking of pigment test, this dude has the same maternal haplogroup as La Brana who had a pigment test and was determined to have dark skin with blue eyes. If that pigment test was like the one that predicted Neanderthal pigment dark skin with blue eyes was probably Afro American brown with medium to light brown eyes. That is how the system typically errs. La Brana also had an SNP test and it was found that…
            ‘The SNPs around the two diagnostic variants (red arrows) in these two genes were analysed. The resulting haplotype comprises neighbouring SNPs that are also absent in modern Europeans (CEU) (n = 112) but present in Yorubans (YRI) (n = 113). This pattern confirms that the La Braña 1 sample is older than the positive-selection event in these regions. Blue, ancestral; red, derived.’
            http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v507/n7491/fig_tab/nature12960_F2.html

            Remember I said that Yoruba signature is found not just outside of west Africa but in Asia and Europe.

            Still I’m not saying this dude wasn’t white but his closest know relative was a black man.
            This subtle stuff builds up and creates racism.

            It’s like they say you don’t have to lie to kick it. This is how ancient Egyptians depict Canaanites. These are the main ancestors to the Phoenicians. http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=2j5kqh1&s=9#.WG9NMFMrLg8
            Compare the primary sources to the google images and the recreation.

            I normally don’t try to convert aspiring white supremacist but damn if you are still on the hammite hypothesis I almost feel sorry for you. They got that stuff from the bible. It’s not Egyptians. Those are Noah’s boys. The pyramid age is at the same time as the flood. That’s a made up story based on made up story. Again an example of the miseducations of the albino.

            There was no such thing as Caucasians. Egyptians never talked about Caucasians. There are no Caucasian animals in their iconography. It’s a word that was created in either the 19th or 20th century by a balls in hand white supremacist. Ancient Egyptians traced their origins to the source of the Nile. The famine stele reads

            He departed, he returned to me quickly,
            He let me know the flow of Hapy,
            His shores and all the things they contain.
            He disclosed to me the hidden wonders,
            To which the ancestors had made their way,
            And no king had equaled them since.
            He said to me:

            If anyone tells you that modern Egyptians are the same as ancient give them a running Stone cold Stunner because they are shitting you. They wasn’t just invaded they were occupied and gentrified. You really have to get to the minute genetics to find the ancient signatures in some of the modern neighborhoods. They were invaded by these people called the Sea People, some Hyksos who set up shot, the Babylonians, Assyrians, Kushites, Persians, Romans, Arabians, Turks, French, Brits and Arabians again all set up shot in Egypt. Most of these invasions were back in the day where you couldnt just come small with cannons and a bullhorn and yell Break you Self! They can in deeeep. The Greeks even moved their capital there. So when white supremacist talk about diversity runining Europe tell them 42tribes said eat dic snack hoe.

            You can just look at the art.
            These would be considered black people in any nation today.

            http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=15;t=006199
            https://www.pinterest.com/garygarrett353/ancient-egypt/

            Let those people move to Idaho and the necks gonna be calling Trump drunk and mad. Trump gonna say they Caucasian lol.

            And genetically too. I can say definitively that you can’t produce that King Tut DNA ancestry test where he was related to Europeans like that. It does not exist. It was more miseducation. A false narrative. A lie. The actual test is here along with Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Amenhotep is here
            http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2012-01-01.pdf

            http://dnaconsultants.com/king-tut-gene

            Ramesses III and New
            Kingdom Egypt
            http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2013-02-01.pdf
            The Akhenaten Gene
            http://dnaconsultants.com/akhenaten-gene
            The Egyptian Gene
            http://dnaconsultants.com/egyptian-gene

            Only Ramses iii’s haplogroup was released and its located here
            http://www.thegeneticatlas.com/E1b1a.png
            He is in the same family tree branch as African Americans. Same as Vin Diesel’s.

          • Rob

            “If anyone tells you that modern Egyptians are the same as ancient give them a running Stone cold Stunner because they are shitting you.”

            So…… Blacks never created any civilization in sub-Saharan Africa at all. Not even a written language. But they migrated to the region now known as Egypt, and when they got there THEN they created a civilization.

            …….then they all returned back to sub-Saharan Africa where they apparently lost all that knowledge and returned back to their natural state, living like animals.

          • 42tribes

            Wow, the miseducation of the…
            Pii and the Pythagorean theorem, which crosses references with Pythagoras studying in Egypt are concepts people with meh IQs could learn. 80 to 90% of ancient Egypt was illiterate yet you still have examples of writing outside of Egypt. Arabic was adopted because it was efficient. China is doing the same with English. No country has more English speakers.

            Black people moved around. There are images of boats in the ancient Sahara. You look at the early Greeks, Romans, Turks and Chinese and there are black people and mollatos in their art and what is classified as African ancestry in their genetics. The bell beaker culture, that supposedly built Stonehenge had African ancestry as did the Vikings, they both had history from white Europeans who talked about black Vikings and brown druids building Stonehenge. I use to think black people were just arrogant when it comes to history until I studied history and genetics. They were the forerunners of civilization and culture around the world. Egypt was just a beacon. There were nations in Africa before Egypt and many after with writing and complex structures. According to Wikipedia the largest man made structure is in Nigeria.

            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walls_of_Benin
            They extend for some 9,900 miles (16,000 kilometres) in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected settlement boundaries. They cover 2,510 sq. miles (6,500 square kilometres) and were all dug by the Edo people. In all, they are four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops. They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the planet.[3]

            Then north of that and you have castles 2,000 years before King Arthur. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhar_Tichitt
            Google Image Dhar Tichitt and you will see what I mean.
            Go to the middle of Africa and you had

            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Loango
            Neanderthals never built anything like this shit
            https://africa.si.edu/exhibits/loango/art/lviewbig.gif

            Then you further south outside the jungle where you can get some stone and you have…
            https://91b6be3bd2294a24b7b5-da4c182123f5956a3d22aa43eb816232.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/contentItem-8482066-74225787-4w8vefznpt6aq-or.jpg

            Head east and you have https://redice.tv/a/i/n/08/3347stgiyorgis.jpg
            Show me that level of civilization with your big brain Neanderthals. If anything they were the ones living like animals.

            Medieval Europe is an extension of African culture and technology. Castles, toilets, circumcision, metal, swords, wands, staves, writing, paper, magic, spells on scrolls, math, science, dynastic rulers, libations, astronomy, domain based temples were In Africa before Europe. And instead of popping collar to the forerunners spreading genocidal propaganda.
            It shows the moral depravity. Africa was invaded, robbed and conquered at one point or another and in some cases twice over, with no reparations. Now China is trying to soft shoe it. To then come back to Africa, not with reparations but with an intelligence test that was created before many of the invasions shows not just the moral depravity of people who would run something like that but the stupidity of someone who would buy into such a scheme. All this IQ test shit is, game to justify exploitation. They know white people are stupid enough to buy into and pay taxes to fund some soft shoe colonialism so three they spin it. That is why I contend that as a world power, white people are stupid. You can’t tax the multitude to fund the exploitation without the propaganda.

            I’m not fending to respond to poorly sourced blog propaganda on IQ. I don’t trust the narrative from white supremacist. I caught them in too many lies. I’m too much of an analyzer to accept race bias narrative and janky empericals as even being worthy of whatever. That isn’t to say that my My Cousin Vinnie gene isn’t temped to call out the Pseudo science.

            I did read it. I followed your copy and paste to other articles and I notice the IQ shit aims too high. That’s why I call it genocidal propaganda. It takes the lowest scores in Africa and compares them to the highest in the world and makes an argument that black people are subhuman. If that’s true then so are the countries that are lower or equal to the highest African nations. We would have to include
            16 Thailand Thailand 91
            17 Albania Albania 90
            17 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 90
            17 Chile Chile 90
            17 Croatia Croatia 90
            17 Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 90
            17 Turkey Turkey 90
            18 Costa Rica Costa Rica 89
            18 Laos Laos 89
            18 Mauritius Mauritius 89
            18 Serbia Serbia 89
            18 Suriname Suriname 89
            19 Ecuador Ecuador 88
            19 Mexico Mexico 88
            19 Samoa Samoa 88
            20 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 87
            20 Bolivia Bolivia 87
            20 Nauru Nauru 87
            20 Guyana Guyana 87
            20 Indonesia Indonesia 87
            20 Iraq Iraq 87
            20 Myanmar Myanmar 87
            20 Tajikistan Tajikistan 87
            20 Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 87
            20 Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 87
            21 Kuwait Kuwait 86

            All of those nations are at or below Sierra Leone so if the IQ test is your premise for black people being subhuman every other ‘race’ has millions who are as well. Sierra Leone is poor, war torn yet still above all of those nations. But what is different about Sierra Leone? Could it be that it is English? It’s the only nation in Africa that was English from the start. It was settled by black English men. A germantic language was the language of their forefathers. That removes one of the most unexplored cultural biases for such a test. IQ test is culturally bias for people living in the sticks, or outside of mainstream culture the. I would compare it to a Japanese roleplaying game in the hands of someone who has only played western roleplaing games? It test verbal skills using words and concepts that are foreign to people outside of western culture. It would not be such a big deal wasn’t timed. I can only imagine how it mangles the translations to these people’s languages.

            For example:

            RAPETEKA

            A. city
            B. fruit
            C. bird
            D. vegetable

            Correct answer: bird (parakeet)

            2. Find the answer that best completes the analogy

            people : democracy :: wealthy :

            A. oligarchy
            B. oligopoly
            C. plutocracy
            D. timocracy
            E. autocracy

            Correct answer: plutocracy

            You might be from a culture that doesn’t separate fruit from vegetables, you might not have any concept of a oligarchy. I don’t even know what a timocracy is. People with less money and time, care less about random test. http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/race-iq-and-wealth/

            You might not know what a parakeet is. That doesn’t make you less intelligent.

            The last time I took an IQ test I scored 117. That beats the average of all nations on earth and yes I took one of those net geo test too. I am 59% west African 35% western and central European 3% East African. With 0.5% Neanderthal. I beat every nation’s average IQ test. I was crip walking on those 4% Neanderthal (big brain) people. I could have studied and became a mensa but there just wasn’t enough benefits. On average, Hong Kong must be subhuman to me! That is how dumb you sound. For the record, I don’t credit the IQ test as measure of intelligence. Even if I did I don’t see it as a major key to black power and it’s been been rebutted by many sources and from many angels. http://www.unz.com/article/the-iq-gap-is-no-longer-a-black-and-white-issue/

          • Rob

            “Walls of Benin”

            “……….consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops. They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct……”

            That was from New Scientist, which is a tabloid — NOT a science journal. It covers current developments, news, reviews and commentary on science and technology. It also prints speculative articles, ranging from the technical to the philosophical.

            “It was considered the largest man-made structure lengthwise and was hailed as the largest earthwork in the world. It is larger than Sungbo’s Eredo.[citation needed]”

            LOL, your assertion was posted without any citation.

            The fact is, those walls are merely mud berms.

          • Rob

            “Black people moved around.”

            No, they did not.

            Do you have any DNA study demonstrating that?

          • bobbyjacabson

            Yes bitch they did.

          • Rob

            “Medieval Europe is an extension of African culture and technology. Castles, toilets, circumcision, metal, swords, wands, staves, writing, paper, magic, spells on scrolls, math, science, dynastic rulers, libations, astronomy, domain based temples were In Africa before Europe.”

            You completely made that up.

            OK, what is your evidence for sub-Saharan Africans having invented the toilet?

          • bobbyjacabson

            They had invented them in Spain a little bit after 711 ad bitch when they domesticated your white ancestors bitch.

          • Rob

            “IQ test is culturally bias……..”

            Don’t you think this has been considered by the test creators……..?

            How do you explain Blacks performing so poorly on the backward digit span, or mental chronometry, or SAT-math tests?

            Is life culturally biased? Why are Blacks unsuccessful everywhere?

            To this day Whites have to provide charity to every Black nation. How can you possibly be arguing that Blacks and Whites are equally intelligent?

            Whites have a probe exploring Saturn’s moon; Blacks still cannot even feed themselves.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Wrong bitch. So wrong.

          • Rob

            Are the races equally intellectually endowed?

          • bobbyjacabson

            Yes they are bitch.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Spoken like a true boss. Fuck that Rob punk. A wannabe white supremacist fucker with no aims in life.

          • bobbyjacabson

            You are the dumbest little white bitch on this thread. You quote pseudo-science bullshit and think that it’s gospel. GO FUCK YOURSELF YOU DUMB WHITE BITCH.

          • Rob

            “I think black people are genius.”

            Black-White IQ Distribution:

            For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

            Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

            Blacks:
                             5% above 110 IQ
                             16% above 100 IQ
                             40% above 90 IQ
                             70% above 80 IQ
                             30% below 80 IQ
                             18% below 75 IQ
                             10% below 70 IQ

            Whites:
                             10% above 120 IQ
                             18% above 115 IQ
                             27% above 110 IQ
                             40% above 105 IQ
                             50% above 100 IQ
                             60% below 105 IQ
                             35% below 95 IQ
                             15% below 85 IQ

            So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

            The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

            Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

            These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

            Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

            As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

            Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

            Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

            Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

            In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the Black mean IQ).

            ~~~~~

            Digit Span Tests

            In digit span tests, the respondents are asked to repeat a string of digits. There are two variants of the test, forward digit span (FDS) and backward digit span (BDS). In FDS, the digits are repeated in the order of their presentation, while in BDS they must be repeated in the reverse order. The largest number of digits that a person can repeat without error is his or her forward or backward digit span.

            That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

            Black-White Digit Span:

            Forward Digit Span Difference

            Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
              0.01                 0.04                   0.16

            Backward Digit Span Difference

            Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
             0.43                 0.31                  0.36

            It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

            The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

            In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

            ~~~~~~~~~

            Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

            Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

            The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

            Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

            For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

            Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

            Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
            Hong Kong: 113
            Japan: 110
            Briton: 100
            Ireland: 89
            South Africa: 67

            Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
            Hong Kong: 787
            Japan: 818
            Briton: 898
            Ireland: 902
            South Africa: 924

            ~~~~~~~

            Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

                   Year              White             Black               Gap
                   1986              1038               839                 199
                   1990              1031               849                 185
                   1996              1052               857                 195
                   2000              1060               859                 201
                   2005              1061               863                 197
                   2010              1063               855                 208

            Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2012

            Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

            Abstract

            This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

            Frey MC, Detterman DK.

            PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

            ~~~~~

            New York Times, 2003:

            The SAT captures more than a narrow range of skills, important only in the first year or two of college. Large-scale meta-analyses by researchers at the University of Minnesota have found that SAT performance is as good of a predictor of overall college grade point average as it is of freshman grade point average, and Vanderbilt researchers David Lubinski and Camilla Benbow have documented that the SAT predicts life outcomes well beyond the college years, including income and occupational achievements.

            Furthermore, the SAT is largely a measure of general intelligence. Scores on the SAT correlate very highly with scores on standardized tests of intelligence, and like IQ scores, are stable across time and not easily increased through training, coaching or practice. SAT preparation courses appear to work, but the gains are small — on average, no more than about 20 points per section.

            ~~~~~

            ACT Scores by Race:

                   Year              White             Black               Asian
                   2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
                   2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
                   2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
                   2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
                   2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
                  
            Source: ACT, Inc.

            Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

            In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

            This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

            ~~~~~~

            Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                             15% = Black
                             24% = Non-White Hispanic
                             35% = Native American
                             53% = White
                             56% = Asian               

            Source: The College Board, 2014

          • Rob

            “I think black people are genius.”

            Blacks have small brains

            Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

            Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

                 •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
                 •   are 100 grams heavier
                 •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
                 •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
                 •   have more pyramidal neurons
                 •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
                 •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
                 •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

            Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

            Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

            The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

            Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

            The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

            There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

            Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

            In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

            The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

            Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

            Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

            Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

            The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

            Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

            Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

            Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

            Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

            Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

            ~~~~~~~~~~

            Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

            AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

            ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

            2015, October

            PMID: 26449760

            ~~~~~~~~

            Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

            Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

            Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

            Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

            “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

            “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

            1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

            2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

            3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

            4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

            5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

            6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

            -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

            According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

            Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

            Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

            The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

            Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

            The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

            Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

            “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

            “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

            Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

            The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

            “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

            “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

            Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

            Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

            – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
            – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

            On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

            Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

            Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

            In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

            That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

            Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

            Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

            This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

            Sources:

            Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

            Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

            Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

            Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

            Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

            Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

            Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

            Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

            Cranial Capacities:

            Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

            Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

            Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

            Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

            Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

            Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

            Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                        

            ————–

            Abstract:

            Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

            General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

            Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

            Intelligence

            Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

            Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
            Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

            Abstract

            An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

            Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Arthur R. Jensen, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

          • Rob

            “…with your Neanderthal brain/IQ theory….”

            It’s an absolute facts that modern man is hybridized with Neanderthals.

            You can get your DNA tested for $100 and it will show the percentage of Neanderthal you have.

            Only Blacks are not hybridized with Neanderthal. Blacks also have small, primitive brains. Do you dispute that too?

          • Rob

            ” I would suggest avoiding white Egypt too. ”

            Egyptians are also hybridized with Neanderthal.

            There are three races; Black, White and Asian (and many ethnicities). Anthropologists can identify race simply by observing the shape of the skull. Simply, Asians have Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA, Whites have only Neanderthal DNA and Blacks have neither.

            Ancient Egyptians were Caucasians. They were Hamittes, people who entered Africa from the Middle East and also gave rise to the Berbers, Tuaregs, and the Beja. All these groups live in North Africa today and they are all Caucasians.

            This is not a secret. The Egyptians were fastidious record-keepers and placed great importance on their lineage. They also painted and made statues of themselves so we know exactly what they looked like. Just look at the mummy of 19th Dynasty pharaoh Ramses I (1290 BC) — he has white features, even including stringy red hair.

            The first pyramid was engineered and designed by the Kingdom’s chief architect, Imhotep in 2630 B.C., who is White.

            DNA studies show that ancient Egyptians had an approximate 90% genetic commonality with modern Egyptians.

            Also, up to 70 percent of British men and half of all Western European men are related to the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun, according to geneticists.

            Scientists at Zurich-based DNA genealogy centre, iGENEA, reconstructed the DNA profile of the boy Pharaoh, who ascended the throne at the age of nine, his father Akhenaten and grandfather Amenhotep III, based on a film that was made for the Discovery Channel.

            The results showed that King Tut belonged to a genetic profile group, known as haplogroup R1b1a2, to which more than 50 percent of all men in Western Europe belong, indicating that they share a common ancestor.

          • bobbyjacabson

            You fuckin’ idiot none of what you type is true.

          • bobbyjacabson

            Actually they did you dumb ass piece of shit.

        • bobbyjacabson

          You are one dumb stupid white bitch.

  • AdaLovelace

    I will wait until Asian scientists have investigated this claim for themselves and determined if it is true. Right now, it just looks like European scientists are trying to dissociate themselves from the possibility that Europeans might have more neanderthal DNA than other ethnic groups. It all goes back to the European fear of not being “racially pure” or genetically the most “sophisticated” or “advanced”. There has been too much scientific racism in Europe and the United States for me to take this finding with any seriousness. I will wait until scientists from Asia confirm that Asians actually do have more neanderthal DNA or challenge the validity of this scientific study. If you simply look with your eyes at what neanderthals actually looked like–fair hair and light colored eyes–they look far more like someone fron England than they do someone from Vietnam.

    • Robert Jesionowski

      This is the most blatantly racist thing I have read in a long time. You fear racism? Look in the mirror.

      • Blackfire

        Shut up ans stop exaggerating. The only blatantly racist people are white

        • Robert Jesionowski

          Irony escapes you. As does spelling. Reality much?

        • Jim Doe

          According to statistics in the USA black people commit a lot more crime on white people, making them way bigger racists than whites or other minorities living in the USA.

          • bobbyjacabson

            No, they don’t 85% of crimes committed against whites are from other whites.

    • What do we know about what Neanderthals actually looked like? Those are reconstructions; they may be subtly or blatantly influenced by the reconstructors’ biases.

    • GDD

      The only racism out there is the myth that races are a “social” construct, when anyone with half a brain (except libtards) knows that races do exist and have existed for centuries.

      You are obviously obsessed with “white” racism.. while ignoring the most racist people on the planet: The Apartheid State of IsraHell who forbid their women from marrying non-jews and discriminate against Palestinians, IsraHelli Arabs and African inmigrants in IsraHell.. why don’t you talk about that?

    • James Ferlong

      Neanderthal were all over Europe and Asia, They would not have all looked the same. They would not all have had light hair and skin.

      They would be just like any other animal and in only a few generations they show adaptations to their region. Over thousands of years they would show obvious diversifications from their isolation genetic ‘cousins’, over tens of thousands of years they would show major diversification.

      A Neanderthal from Europe simply would not look the same as one from Asian and anyone claiming to knowing anything about the topic should know that.

    • Phanteus

      Actually, going by skull structure, Neanderthals are more closer to East Asians for 2 reasons:

      1. Brain size. Neanderthals have a massive 1600 cc cranial volume. The only ethnic group that can come close is, the Mongolians with their average of 1573 cc, largest for any ethnic group today. Europeans are considerably smaller, by about ~200 cc.

      2. Cheekbones. Arctic people and Mongolians are known to have large cheekbones, perhaps largest for any population. Neanderthals also have sturdy big cheekbones.

  • robertdaniels

    think of the scene as bodies on a collision course this is what happens their going in one direction your coming from another ,then the first thing you know from hence you left are now your decendance living back at their former residence there forefathers left without knowing that but something had happened and those people are only halfr breeds see this is why its so hard to figure whos who and what

  • James Ferlong

    Oh you bunch of weirdos. Stop trying to make up excuses for you DNA. You ruin otherwise useful information with you drivel.

    By far the most likely scenario is bad testing. How we test and compare for Neanderthal DNA is flawed. You’d be just as likely to guess the history of Neanderthal via behavior science as relying on our immature understanding of genetics and even basic inheritance.

    Cultural hierarchies and other diversity bottlenecks can also preserve and propagate certain traits, some of which could be particularly neanderthal, as a secondary factor.

    Something as simple as climate change and mass migrations can explain odd clusters of out of place DNA. Like a invasive species that might travel accidentally from one continent to another, humans can migrate surprising far due to their efficient gait and adaptive brains. We can also reproduce rapidly once we find a plush spot, but as group or tribes we were most likely territorial.

    All it would take is a new tribe to come in and make ‘camp’ in a good spot and figure out one good resource exploit that other people either did not have access to or simply didn’t figure out.

    Back in those days a breakthrough could happen locally within your tribe and that ‘technology’ could live and die within that group. A tribe might find access to a malleable metal giving them an extreme tool and weapon advantage. That could let them dominate the surrounding tribes or area for literally tens of thousands of years, back in those days.

    Population density was sparse, humans can only reproduce so fast without agricultural and civilization. The luck your geographic resources would play a huge role, one I think we often misjudge when looking at population and genetics. We have no similar animal to study either to predict behavior and there is no real chance of finding small fossil record that paint a complete enough picture.

    I believe we are overlooking more data than we are equating and because of that we are wasting our brain cycles. This is fantasy science.

  • Rob

    Blacks are dumb

    General intelligence is inherited and not equally distributed among human races. IQ tests are designed to measure the general innate and immutable mental capability that involves abstract and cognitive thinking, spatial-relations skills, and logical reasoning. They are designed to measure the ability to:

         •   solve novel problems
         •   retain knowledge and apply skills
         •   comprehend complex ideas
         •   plan and learn quickly and from experience
       
    IQ tests are not designed to measure how much a person has learned, but rather whether a person is capable of learning.

    Intelligence, so defined, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

    It was discovered that people who did well on one mental test did well on others, regardless of their content. It was reasoned that different tests must draw on the same global capacity, and dubbed that capacity g, for general intelligence.

    Individual differences in general cognitive ability are reliably measured by IQ tests. IQ is strongly related, probably more than any other single measurable trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic and social variables. IQ is also correlated with a number of variables of the brain, including its size, electrical potentials, and rate of glucose metabolism during cognitive activity. Individual differences in adult IQ are largely genetic, with heritability of about 70 percent. So far, attempts to raise IQ by educational or psychological means have failed to show appreciable lasting effects on cognitive ability and scholastic achievement. The IQ distribution between Blacks and Whites is represented by two largely overlapping bell curves with their means separated by about 15 points, a difference not due to test bias. IQ has the same meaning and practical predictive validity for both groups. Tests do not create differences; they merely reflect them.

    The average score is set at 100, and everyone is rated accordingly. Expressed this way, IQs for a whole population can be arrayed on a single graph. Roughly two-thirds of all Americans fall between 85 and 115, in the fat midsection of the bell-shaped curve, and 95 percent score between 70 and 130.

    By computing a value known as the correlation coefficient, a scientist can measure the degree of association between any two phenomena that are plausibly linked. The correlation between unrelated variables is 0, while phenomena that vary in perfect lock step have a correlation of 1. A correlation of .4 would tell you that 40 percent of the variation in one thing is matched by variation in another, while 60 percent of it is not.

    Current estimates for heritability of IQ ranges up to 0.8 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated). See the Minnesota Twin Family Study, conducted from 1979 to 1999, which followed identical and fraternal twins who were separated at an early age for some fascinating revelations about the powerful influence of genes.

    Studies find no IQ correlation among grown adoptive siblings. But the typical correlations are roughly .35 for half siblings (who share a quarter of their genes), .47 for full siblings (who share half of their genes) and .86 for identical twins (who share all their genes).

    Millions of IQ tests and psychometric experiments conducted world-wide over 100 years have been normed for every conceivable variable and bias, yet demonstrate an intractable intellegence divide between Blacks and the other races. Blacks score lowest on every intelligence test ever devised, including “life”. There has never been an IQ test administered anywhere in the world where the racial rankings didn’t follow the same pattern; Asians, Whites, non-White Hispanics, and then finally Blacks.

    Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

         •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
         •   are 100 grams heavier
         •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
         •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
         •   have more pyramidal neurons
         •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
         •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
         •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

    Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

    Racial activist groups have tried to create their own tests to demonstrate intellectual parity of the races and also attack the integrity of the existing tests and have hired anti-bias experts, but the rankings are always the same; African Blacks average a 70 IQ (only 2% of Whites score this low), but American Blacks average 85 due to mixing with Whites (28% on average), non-White Hispanics 87, Whites 100, Asians 106 and Ashkenazi Jews 115.

    Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category. In fact, only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Blacks are socially functional at 70 IQ because that is only one standard deviation below their mean; that equates to a White at 85 IQ.

    Even using tests created by Black psychologists and non-verbal tests designed to be culture-free and unbiased, no amount of testing or wishful thinking shows any improvement in Black IQ. Tests that only require the subject to push buttons in response to flashing lights or memorizing sequences of colored squares projected on a screen Blacks perform worse than Whites, and the gap increases as the patterns become more complicated. The test involves rows of colored squares where one from each row has to be matched with another. More complex images which have distinctive features linked by that feature to other images in an increasing number of rows.

    Another test is a list of numbers read aloud and the subject has to repeat them back in forward and reverse order. The subject is given a relevant fact that has to be considered when making otherwise simple manipulations of numbers and identify designated figures or characters in a given amount of time. The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

    Raven’s Progressive Matrices is a completely non-verbal test of pattern recognition and reasoning and contains no culturally-specific information, African Blacks scored 70 IQ. Interestingly, the mixed-race students in South Africa had an IQ of 85 — the same as Blacks in the United States, Britain, and the Caribbean. This is a standard deviation above pure Blacks, but also a standard deviation below Whites.

    Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

    The IQ race gap doesn’t begin to correlate firmly with adult IQ until about age five, but studies reveal a one standard deviation race gap present by age three.

    In the United States, self-identified Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. The tests show a Black-White IQ difference of about 15 to 18 points (or about one standard deviation) which implies that between 11 and 16 percent of the black population have an IQ above 100 (the general population median). Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Graduate Record Examination as well as for tests of job applicants in the corporate sector and in the military.

    The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 81; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low. Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black. These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

    Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

    The IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140. Meanwhile one-in-83 Whites have an IQ above 140. So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses will outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

    For every one gifted Black there are 8 gifted Whites, 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed race.

    Incidentally, though the average IQ of East Asians is 6 points higher than the average non-Jewish White, the percentage distribution of East Asians with IQs above 140 is slightly lower. The reason for this is that the range of cognitive variation among Whites is greater than among East Asians. Specifically, Asians’ IQs are more clustered around the mean; therefore, Whites produce more geniuses, but also more morons.

    Psychometricians regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. A high reliability implies that although test-takers may have varying scores when taking the same test on differing occasions, and they may have varying scores when taking different IQ tests at the same age, the scores generally agree with one another and across time.

    Standardized intelligence testing has been called one of psychology’s greatest successes and is the field’s most widely-used invention. Since standardized tests were first used to identify learning-impaired children in the early 1900s they have become one of the primary tools for identifying children with learning disabilities, they assist the military place new recruits, job screening and for evaluating professional athletes.

    Some occupations seek candidates within specific IQ ranges. There was a recent case where a police officer candidate was rejected after he scored too high on an intelligence test.

    The NFL famously uses the Wonderlic test in their scouting combines and the racial disparity is evident. Out of a perfect score of 50; offensive tackles=26, centers=25, quarterback=24; versus safeties=19, cornerbacks=18 and receivers=17.

    Black-White IQ Distribution (Google: racial IQ bell curve):

    Blacks:
                     5% above 110 IQ
                     16% above 100 IQ
                     40% above 90 IQ
                     70% above 80 IQ
                     30% below 80 IQ
                     18% below 75 IQ
                     10% below 70 IQ

    Whites:
                     10% above 120 IQ
                     18% above 115 IQ
                     27% above 110 IQ
                     40% above 105 IQ
                     50% above 100 IQ
                     60% below 105 IQ
                     35% below 95 IQ
                     15% below 85 IQ

    So, the top 16% of Black intellectual elites are only as intelligent as the top 50% of Whites.

    As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

    IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The same is true for other cognitive tests such as No Child Left Behind mandated state tests and NAEP tests. All of these cognitive tests show the same racial patterns in test score distribution with Ashkenazi Jews, East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans), and Whites showing higher scores than Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks showing lower scores.

    The scores on the SAT (especially the SAT-math) and the ACT are for all practical purposes interchangeable with IQ test scores. In 2005, 153,132 Black Americans took the SAT test. They made up 10.4 percent of all SAT test takers. But only 1,132 Black college-bound students scored 700 or above on the math SAT and only 1,205 scored at least 700 on the verbal SAT. On the math SAT, only 0.7 percent of all Black test takers scored at least 700 compared to 6.3 percent of all White test takers. Thus, Whites were nine times as likely as Blacks to score 700 or above on the math SAT. Only 0.16 percent of all Black test takers scored 750 or above compared to 1.8 percent of White test takers. Thus, Whites were more than 11 times as likely as Blacks to score 750 or above on the math SAT.

    This gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks, 185 to non-White Hispanics and penalize Asians by 50 points, all in an effort to help the low-IQ races gain admittance.

    A person’s level of moral reasoning is correlated with intelligence. Studies sequencing the stages of moral development support what we all know; you have to be cognitively mature to reason morally. IQ tests correlate with moral maturity.

    There is also a strong correlation between IQ and success. Economists have started taking an interest in the value of human capital, particularly the factor that psychologists call cognitive ability. In other words, it’s the ability of a person to solve a problem most efficiently. Not with violence, but by thinking. It is worth noting here that Blacks possess 9.4 times more of the dysfunctional MAOA gene (“warrior gene”) and have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in Whites, both strongly correlated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

    Researchers collected information on 90 countries, including far-off lands from the U.S. to New Zealand and Colombia to Kazakhstan. They also collected data on the country’s excellence in science and technology, including the number of patents granted per person and how many Nobel science laureates the country’s people had won in science (there has never been a Black Nobel science laureate).

    They found that intelligence made a difference in gross domestic product. For example, some of the highest National IQs:

              •   108      Singapore
              •   106      South Korea
              •   105      Japan
              •   105      China
              •   102      Italy
              •   101      Iceland
              •   101      Mongolia
              •   101      Switzerland
              •   100      Austria
              •   100      Luxembourg
              •   100      Netherlands
              •   100      Norway
              •   100      United Kingdom

    And the lowest:

              •   69        Malawi
              •   69        Niger
              •   68        Chad
              •   68        Somalia
              •   68        Swaziland
              •   67        Guinea
              •   67        Haiti
              •   67        Liberia
              •   66        Gambia
              •   64        Cameroon
              •   64        Gabon
              •   64        Sierra Leone
              •   64        Mozambique
              •   59        Equatorial Guinea

    Blacks are archaic proto-humans, a different species from Whites and Asians;

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals who lived in Europe. The trans-Saharan African migrants mated with the Neanderthals and Denisovans to create a composite hybrid that is modern man. Therefore, we do not share a common ancestor.

    The farther north the populations migrated out of Africa, the more they encountered the cognitively demanding problems of gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, making clothes, and raising children during prolonged winters. Consequently, as the original African populations evolved into present-day Whites and Asians, they did so by hybridizing with Neanderthals which created larger brains and greater intelligence, but also slower rates of maturation, lower levels of sex hormones, and concomitant reductions in sexual potency and aggressiveness, and increases in family stability and social conformity.

    Neanderthals are a different species than Whites, and yet produced fertile offspring (as do many interspecies hybrids). In fact all modern humans (Whites and Asians) are products of that hybridization.

    Blacks have a genetic distance closer to archaic human than to modern human. That genetic distance is farther apart than it is for many species.

    Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

    The genetic distance between H.Sapien and H.Erectus is only 0.17, while the genetic distance between Blacks and Eurasians is 0.23. Therefore Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic humans than to modern man (Whites and Asians).

    For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between the Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black-White distance). Thus, Whites and Blacks are more genetically distant than two different chimpanzee species, two different gorilla species, Eurasians and Neanderthals, and Eurasians and H.Erectus.

    To be taxonomically consistent Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at the very least into different subspecies.

    When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals in southern Europe and created an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

    Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

         •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
         •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
         •   Asians = Neanderthal + Denisovan

    Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

    Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

    Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which partly explains why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

    However, Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early (and unknown) hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain “unknown” due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced, Only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

    Forensic scientists can determine race by cranium shape; Blacks have a small frontal lobe and sloping frontal plane and a smaller cranium-to-mandible ratio. Whites have the largest craniums, an almost vertical frontal slope and a massive frontal lobe. The Asian is very similar and also more evolved. It is the frontal lobe that separates our behavior most from the animals and is responsible for language and rational thought.

    Blacks show primitive traits associated with lower primates, such as prognathism, which is the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. A protruding jaw is associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition and self-control.

    Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, fur instead of hair, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

    At birth Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull and other bones in Blacks are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

    Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density. This is why their brains are smaller, and less complex.

    Eurasian women have a wider pelvic inlet, and shallower anteroposterior outlet than Black women due to the difference in brain size.

    Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

    The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

    Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

    In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

    The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

    Further, this reflects what we observe in real life (including the large and persistent so-called “Achievement Gap”). People have made long-term observations of the different races and reached rational conclusions; the more White a society is the more prosperous, inventive and safe it is. 19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). In sub-Saharan Africa the only countries that could be considered successful were White-governed, (Rhodesia and S. Africa). To this day they still can’t even feed themselves even though they lived alone in Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources, for 60,000 years. So they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language (or even words for abstract ideas), weaved cloth, forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar or code of laws or any social organization, or system of measurement or math or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer or road or railway or a sea-worthy vessel, domesticated animals, exploited underground natural resources or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

         •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
         •   East Asians = 106
         •   Whites = 100
         •   South East Asians = 87
         •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
         •   American Blacks = 85 (average 28% White admixture)
         •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
         •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
         •   Australian Aborigines = 62

    Sub-Saharan Africans never even created a written language. It was the White colonialists who gave the gift of literacy to them.

    No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language or words for abstract ideas, weaved cloth, forged steel, invented the wheel or plow or devised a calendar or code of laws or any social organization or formal religion or system of measurement or math or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer or infrastructure of any kind and they never harnessed a river or even drilled well or irrigation or road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals or exploited underground natural resources, understood the biological origins of disease, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.

    How could they live with all that shoreline and never think about putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did? Columbus sailed across the ocean 500 years ago — Blacks STILL are incapable of such a feat.

    19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites. There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

    Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

    The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population, it demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks. But a constantly A constantly dwindling number of Whites are at the mercy of a predatory welfare class and it’s possible they can’t and won’t carry the rest of the population. If things get worse for them, they will simply flee the country.

    Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to build a sufficient infrastructure. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

    This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

    Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere.

    Blacks are the oldest race, so they should be the most advanced race; but they they never developed at all and had to be domesticated by Whites.

    Civilization didn’t occur until early humans hybridized with Neanderthals. Only after the hybridization were advanced societies created. Blacks, who never hybridized with Neanderthals, never created a civilization and were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

    Hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals produced a modern human (Whites and Asians) with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures.
    Google: “race and IQ”, “national IQ”, “race and MAOA gene”, “Neanderthal DNA”, “smaller black brains”, “correlation brain size and IQ”, “achievement gap”, “IQ correlation to achievement”, “NIH Blacks 21% greater testosterone”, Cumoe, D. & Thorne, A. – 2003. Number of Ancestral Human Species: a Molecular Perspective, Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R (2005). “Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability”, Psychology, Public Policy and Law 11 (2): 246–8, Current Biology, Vol. 13, R134–R136, February 18, 2003, ©2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. PII S0960-9822(03)00074-5; Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease — Genome Biology 2002.

    Racial brain size differences: Whole Brain Size and General Mental Ability: A Review, Int J Neurosci. 2009 Apr; 119(5): 692–732, PMCID: PMC2668913. Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race. A NYT article that shows claims of racism in measuring skulls was false: Scientists Measure the Accuracy of a Racism Claim. Mismeasuring Skulls: New Research Resolves Historical Controversy, Shows Science Resists Bias; Stanford Department of Anthropology. Brain size, IQ, and racial-group differences: Evidence from musculoskeletal traits, J.Philippe Rushton, Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 2, March–April 2003, Pages 139–155. Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2005, Vol. 11, No. 2, 235–294, Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association, DOI: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235

    Genetic Distance:
    ESTIMATION OF THE COANCESTRY COEFFICIENT: BASIS FOR A SHORT-TERM GENETIC DISTANCE
    John Reynolds, B. S. Weir, C. Clark Cockerham
    Genetics November 1, 1983 vol. 105 no. 3 767-779

    Number of ancestral human species: a molecular perspective
    D. Curnoe, A. Thorne
    doi:10.1078/0018-442X-00051

    Heritibility of intelligence: Molecular Psychiatry (2015) 20, 98–108; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.105; published online 16 September 2014, Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings; Common DNA Markers Can Account for More Than Half of the Genetic Influence on Cognitive Abilities, Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53949).

    One standard deviation racial IQ gap by age three: (Broman et al, Montie and Fagan, Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov and Duncan)

    • Rob

      Where is the evidence of Black intelligence?

      Blacks have by far the lowest IQs of any race; 80% score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent 10% of Whites have IQs below 80; 40% of Blacks do.

      Only one-in-six Blacks is more intelligent than the average White; five-in-six Whites are more intelligent than the average Black.

      Only the top 16% of Blacks score as high as the top 50% of Whites. Or as the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      US-resident Blacks have higher intelligence than African Blacks due to the approximately 28% average White admixture.

      IQ distribution by race/ethnicity:

           •   Ashkenazi Jews = 115
           •   East Asians = 106
           •   Whites = 100
           •   South East Asians = 87
           •   Non-White Hispanics = 86
           •   American Blacks = 85 (average 28% White admixture)
           •   Middle East and North Africans = 84
           •   Sub-Saharan Blacks = 67 (Only 2% of Whites score this low)
           •   Australian Aborigines = 62

      Therefore, the IQ distribution for US-resident Blacks having an average IQ of 85 and a standard deviation of 12.4 doesn’t mean that there are no US-resident Blacks at all with IQs above 140; it means that only one US-resident Black in about 218,000 will have an IQ above 140.

      So given equal sized populations there will be about 2,600 times more White geniuses than Black geniuses. Since there are about 5.5 times more Whites than Blacks in the United States, White geniuses outnumber Black geniuses by a ratio of about one-to-14,300. Therefore, if all the White people in the USA were replaced by Blacks having the IQ distribution of US-resident Blacks the number of geniuses in the country would fall from about 2.4 million to only about 1,000.

      That is why Blacks are incapable of creating a civilization; there simply are not enough smart Blacks to create an infrastructure for the Black intellectual elite to achieve.

      Racial intelligence differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      While some tirelessly criticize studies that show Black intelligence to be lower than White they can cite no Black performance that indicates high mean intelligence and instead insist that Black ability is present but hidden by bias. But everyday observation together with no evidence that the races are equal disconfirms racial parity.

      The positive relationship between IQ tests, academic tests and real-world observances demonstrates the existence of a general mental ability. How can there be group or individual differences in intelligence if there is no such trait?

      If the races are equal in intelligence then there should be evidence that they are; absence of such evidence is itself evidence that the races are not equal.

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      When similarly-performing Black, White and Asian children are compared for age Black children match White children two years younger, and Asian children three years younger.

      It is an ethological rule that the earlier and more regularly a phenomenon appears in a population the more likely it is genetically controlled. Genetics limits an individuals’ upper limit to IQ, and environment determines how much of that innate genetic potential will be reached. No amount of nurturing can make one exceed innate genetic potential.

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians; Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and therefore do not share a common ancestor with modern man. Blacks have 2% archaic admixture, Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Humans didn’t create a civilization until this hybridization. Blacks were still living in the Stone Age when Whites discovered them just 400 years ago.

      Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which is why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

      Blacks received significant gene introgression from other early hominid species, which the other races do not have because they left sub-Sahara before the introgression occurred. These early hominids remain unknown due to the simple fact that their DNA has not been retrieved nor sequenced; only Neandertal and Denisovan DNA have been, thus far.

      Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more genetically proximate to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      We share 98.4 percent of our genes with chimpanzees, 95 percent with dogs, and 74 percent with microscopic roundworms. Only one chromosome determines if one is born male or female. There is no discernible difference in the DNA of a wolf and a Labrador retriever, yet their inbred behavioral differences are immense. Clearly, what’s meaningful is which genes differ and how they are patterned, not the percent of genes. A tiny number of genes can translate into huge functional differences.

      Modern man (Whites and Asians) has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Genetics determines the upper limit to IQ, but the environment dictates what percentage of your potential you will reach.

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

      No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion. or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

      Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

      Blacks lived alone in sub-Saharan Africa, a vast continent with temperate climates and abundant resources for 60,000 years; so they cannot blame racism, poverty, imperialism or anything else for their failures. How could they live with all that shoreline and never contemplate putting a sail on a ship like every other culture did?

      Blacks are the oldest race, they had a huge head-start so they should be the most advanced race; but they are the least advanced race. And in fact they never did develop until they were domesticated by Whites.

      19 of the 20 poorest countries are sub-Saharan African (Haiti). There has never been a successful Black country. No modern creations or civilization exists in sub-Saharan Africa that was not brought there by Whites.

      There are no White Third-World nations, but all Black ones are.

      Put Whites on an island and you get England; put Asians on an island and you get Japan; put Blacks on an island and you get Haiti.

      Nowhere Blacks live are they considered achievers. In fact they are universally viewed as unproductive and disruptive to society.

      Simply, life is an IQ test.

      Sub-Saharan Africans have never made a contribution to the world. Blacks can only achieve either because they are mixed with White genes or because they reside in White societies. For every one gifted Black there are eight gifted Whites. 80% of gifted Blacks are mixed-race.

      Today there are 738 million Europeans and 1.2 billion Africans. In 2050, according to the latest U.N. projections, Europe’s population will have dipped to 707 million, while Africa’s population will be 2.4 billion. By 2100, half of all children on earth will be African. On current trends, within 35 years, 1 in every 4 people will be sub-Saharan African. By 2100, there will be 4.4 billion Africans – two of every five human beings overall — and Europe’s population will be just 646 million.

      The 41 nations of sub-Saharan Africa produce no more wealth than the tiny country of Belgium, which has only 1/45 the population. The entire continent of Africa produces less than 1% of the world’s manufactured goods. Of all of the region’s economic production, White-run South Africa accounts for three-quarters of it. That Whites are only 8% of South Africa’s population demonstrates how productive and industrious Whites are that so relative few can carry the load for so many unproductive Blacks.

      Blacks are unable to achieve within their own race because not enough of them are smart enough to even build a sufficient infrastructure to allow for the Black intellectual elite to achieve. If allowed to become too numerous they destroy previously-thriving and safe White cities.

      Blacks cannot achieve on their own without the intervention of Whites giving them all the things they could never produce or maintain themselves. Without the continuous intervention of charity into Black Africa they could not even maintain what they have been given.

      All current Black civilization is in fact transplanted White civilization. There is no Black society on Earth that has independently developed and maintained its own technological way of life. All of the Black nations with the highest GDPs benefited from White-created enterprise to exploit their natural resources.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. But civilization didn’t begin until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume density.

      This is why Blacks seethe with jealousy and hatred of Whites yet can’t seem to stay away because they want what we create and maintain, no matter if they deserve it or not. They want our peaceful and clean neighborhoods, our law and order, our technology and science, our school systems, our inventions, the jobs we create, the food we grow, the transportation we invent, the entertainment we provide….. Blacks hate us but can’t live without us. That’s why they demand that we take care of them and give them special rights and privileges that we don’t grant ourselves, just to compensate for their inability at living in a modern and technologically-advanced civilization.

      Slavery was the best thing to happen to Blacks. After defeating George Foreman for the heavyweight title in Zaire (now Congo), Muhammad Ali returned to the United States where he was asked by a reporter, “Champ, what did you think of Africa?” Ali replied, “Thank God my granddaddy got on that boat.”

      There hasn’t been a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world. Show me any community, city or state that is predominantly inhabited and run by Blacks anywhere in the world that is equal or superior to a comparable White one. By their fruits ye shall know them. Show me the fruits of that intelligence.

      “There is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.” Dr James Watson

      • Jdoll

        Neanderthals, Denisovans, and all modern humans are all descended from the ancient human Homo heidelbergensis. Between 300,000 to 400,000 years ago, an ancestral group of H. heidelbergensis left Africa and then split shortly after. One branch ventured northwestward into West Asia and Europe and became the Neanderthals. The other branch moved east, becoming Denisovans. By 130,000 years ago H. heidelbergensis in Africa had become Homo sapiens. Our modern human ancestors did not begin their own exodus from Africa until about 60,000 years ago, when they expanded into Eurasia and encountered their ancient cousins.

        The neantherdals were initially dark but adapted to the environment outside of Africa. The evolved neantherdals mated with the evolved humans who recently left Africa. Both original came from Africa and both originally had dark skin. You’re all from Africa!!!! Racism is so powerful on earth, that you all refute science. I hope you all destroy each other and maybe a newer less ignorant species will evolve.

        • Rob

          “Racism is so powerful on earth, that you all refute science.”

          Are the races equally intellectually endowed?

          Do you dispute that modern man have brains which are larger, denser, and more complex than Blacks’ brains?

          Do you dispute that Blacks are innately more violent than modern man?

          Can you name a single contribution from sub-Saharan Africans to the world?

          Are societies more safe and prosperous if they are more White, or more Black?

          • Jdoll

            If the sub-Saharan Africans were not there to evolve, you wouldn’t be on earth at all.

          • Rob

            ‘If the sub-Saharan Africans were not there to evolve, you wouldn’t be on earth at all.”

            The same can be said of worms.

            The point is, modern man did evolve from Blacks and created a better race.

            When humans evolved from Blacks they hybridized with the large-brained Neanderthals in southern Europe and created an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

            Non-Black humans average 4% Neanderthal DNA. This is significant because there is only 1.5% difference between human and chimpanzee DNA. It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks are the only race with no Neanderthal genes. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic sapiens (H.heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa. At least 30% of the Neanderthal genome made its way into non-Black humans.

            Blacks are Humans 1.0; modern man evolved from Blacks and are Humans 2.0, the improved version. They were formed by hybridization with the large-brained Neanderthals which created larger, denser, more complex brains:

                 •   Blacks = 2% Archaic admixture
                 •   Whites = 4% Neanderthal admixture
                 •   Asians = 5% Neanderthal + Denisovan

            Pure H.Sapiens are Blacks; modern man (Whites and Asians) is hybridized with Neanderthal and is the improved version.

            Blacks belong in the Stone Age, where they were found just 400 years ago.

            Sub-Saharan Blacks did not receive Neanderthal or Denisovan gene introgression, which partly explains why Blacks are the most genetically distant of all the human races.

        • Rob

          “The neantherdals were initially dark but adapted to the environment outside of Africa.”

          Correct. Any they had much larger brains.

          Blacks are the only race not hybridized with the large-brain Neanderthals.

          Note the disparity of achievement between the people hybridized with Neanderthal, and those not hybridized.

          Whites are only 10% of the world’s population, yet are the most industrious, ingenious, and innovative race the world has known. Whites have formed nations, built civilizations, assumed and administrated power, created the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Industrial Revolution, automation, technology, the space program which landed men on the moon and launched probes exploring beyond the solar system, discovered electricity, created wonder drugs and architecture and have harnessed nuclear power, have unlocked the secrets of DNA and relativity, created computer science and the internet age…… sub-Saharan Africans still cannot even feed themselves.

          No pre-contact sub-Saharan African society ever created a written language, or weaved cloth, or forged steel, invented the wheel or plow, or devised a calendar, or code of laws, or any social organization, or formal religion, or system of measurement, or math, or built a multi-story structure or bridge or sewer, or infrastructure of any kind, and they never harnessed a river, or even drilled well or irrigated, or built a road or railway or sea-worthy vessel, they never domesticated animals, or exploited underground natural resources, or produced anything that could be considered a mechanical device.

          Blacks are the only race incapable of caring for themselves. Whites still have to provide food, medical, financial and engineering aid to Africans. They couldn’t survive without White charity. Blacks became an out-of-control invasive species after Whites domesticated them.

          • Jdoll

            Do you refute that neantherdals initially came from Africa? Because there are some who believe they were alians from another planet and I just want to understand from which side do you believe.

          • Rob

            It’s undisputed that Neanderthals originated from Africa — and did all forms of human.

            What makes you think I believe Neanderthals are space aliens??? LOL

        • Rob

          “I hope you all destroy each other and maybe a newer less ignorant species will evolve.”

          Which assertion is ignorant; the races are equally intellectually endowed, or they are not?

          Do you have any evidence of racial intellectual parity?

          • Jdoll

            I didn’t get into race and intellectual parity YET. We need to get through origins first. I will not argue with racists and I find that racists have a hard time discussing origins. Racist arguments will always ignore science at some point, therefore I’m not interested in racist arguments.

          • Rob

            “I will not argue with racists ….”

            I agree with the science. The science supports what could be termed “racism”, that is, that our race largely determines our behavior and potential.

            You must have noticed how Blacks never built any civilization at all, despite being the oldest race by far.

            And, Blacks have the most primitive brains and score one standard deviation lower than modern man on every test of intelligence ever devised.

            All anyone has to do is just look around and we can all notice that Blacks aren’t as intelligence as the other races. It’s not difficult.

          • Jdoll

            The black skinned people has built many things including civilizations that were built on by other blacks over time. Egypt, one of the first civilizations in history, was considered an African culture until the 1800s when white supremacist decided it was to their advantage to claim otherwise. Since that time the general public has presumed that Egypt was a culture that derived its roots from the Middle East, although scholars know otherwise, such as Diodorus (63BC-14AD), an ancient Greek historian, recorded the popular belief that Egypt was an Ethiopian colony:
            “The Ethiopians (black people), as history relates, were the first of all men…They also say that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony And the larger part of the customs of the Egyptians are, they hold, Ethiopian, the colonists still preserving their ancient manners. For instance, the belief that their kings are gods, the very special attention which they pay to their burial, and many other matters of a similar nature are Ethiopian practices, while the shapes of their statues and the forms of their letters are Ethiopian.”

            Then their was Tariq the Moor who conquered Spain for Over 800 years with an African Islamic empire that stretched well into the Saharan desert all the way to Timbuktu, which was the capital of the world at that time and built by black skinned Islamics.

          • Rob

            “Egypt, one of the first civilizations in history…..”

            Egyptians are not Black.

            “Then their was Tariq the Moor…..”

            The Moors were not Black.

            “…all the way to Timbuktu, which was the capital of the world at that time and built by black skinned Islamics.”

            Timbuktu (University of Sankore) was only created in the 1300s. It was designed and constructed by architects from Spain and Cairo. The language of the university was Arabic. It’s not exactly a secret as the manuscripts still exist.

            Sub-Saharan Africans never created a written language.

            That “university” is what today we would call a madrasa, or an “Islamic learning center”.

          • Jdoll

            I’m black and my ancestry traces to the moors. I’m Islamic as well and our empire WILL take over all continents. My better half is what you consider sub-Saharan black. Together the take over over WILL happen as with Timbuktu – mixture of sub Sahara black and Arab/black Islamic. It’s only the beings from the caucasoid mountains that focuses on divisions of Northern Africa vs sub-Saharan, however in person we both have dark skin which predisposes us to racism. My family is literally from morocco and my better half is what you call sub-Saharan African, however their skin is lighter than mine. Maybe their ancestor mated with a neantherdal descendant. The moors were not black – they were NOT white.

          • Rob

            “It’s only the beings from the caucasoid mountains that focuses on divisions of Northern Africa vs sub-Saharan…”

            No. Modern man is hybridized with Neanderthal. That’s the point. Egyptians are hybridized, as are all people outside of sub-Saharan Africa.

            That hybridization created the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

            That’s why Blacks have small, primitive brains.

          • Rob

            Look, I’m sorry your wife is Black, but that was your choice.

            I’m moving on now. I’m exhausted by your nonsense. You seem conflicted by your ancestry of inferior racial genes. That is part of life’s lottery. Just do the best you can and stay out of trouble. Whites will continue to provide for your people as they always have.

          • Jdoll

            Providing for people…..I heard America would have lost the revolutionary war if not for profiting from free labor of the slaves. The native Americans (who are more Neanderthal than you) observed that the white Americans were vile and disgusting and lazy because they did not work their own land. They observed where they had other, darker skin people to do it who they treated inhumanely. You neanderthals didscriminated against other neanderthals based on their skin color. By your own argument, the native Americans are superior to you! But that didn’t stop you from being demonic.

          • Jdoll

            The moors and arabs aren’t black? Provide proof they are white. Provide proof they are NEVER discriminated against based on their skin color?

          • Rob

            “The moors and arabs aren’t black? Provide proof they are white.”

            You know you can fly there and see them in person…… have you looked at pictures of Egyptians? They are not Black!

            You seem to be claiming that even though Blacks never created any civilization in sub-Saharan Africa at all (not even a written language), they migrated to the region now known as Egypt, and when they got there THEN they created a civilization.

            …….then they all returned back to sub-Saharan Africa where they apparently lost all that knowledge and returned back to their natural state, living like animals.

            ROTFLMAO!!

            There are three races; Black, White and Asian (and many ethnicities). Anthropologists can identify race simply by observing the shape of the skull. Simply, Asians have Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA, Whites have only Neanderthal DNA and Blacks have neither.

            Ancient Egyptians were Caucasians. They were Hamittes, people who entered Africa from the Middle East and also gave rise to the Berbers, Tuaregs, and the Beja. All these groups live in North Africa today and they are all Caucasians.

            This is not a secret. The Egyptians were fastidious record-keepers and placed great importance on their lineage. They also painted and made statues of themselves so we know exactly what they looked like. Just look at the mummy of 19th Dynasty pharaoh Ramses I (1290 BC) — he has white features, even including stringy red hair.

            The first pyramid was engineered and designed by the Kingdom’s chief architect, Imhotep in 2630 B.C., who is White.

            DNA studies show that ancient Egyptians had an approximate 90% genetic commonality with modern Egyptians.

            Also, up to 70 percent of British men and half of all Western European men are related to the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun, according to geneticists.

            Scientists at Zurich-based DNA genealogy centre, iGENEA, reconstructed the DNA profile of the boy Pharaoh, who ascended the throne at the age of nine, his father Akhenaten and grandfather Amenhotep III, based on a film that was made for the Discovery Channel.

            The results showed that King Tut belonged to a genetic profile group, known as haplogroup R1b1a2, to which more than 50 percent of all men in Western Europe belong, indicating that they share a common ancestor.

          • Jdoll

            Imhotep was not white. But guess who is more neathadol than you? Native Americans. and many are darker than me and the better half. You caucasoid sprayed them with water hoses two months ago. So now you want to break up people with darker skin into Asian and African race. I guess the native Americans are Asian because they were not white, neither were the moors. You have the odds wrong. It’s not Africa vs whites & asians; its whites vs. asians & Africans. Remember the caucasoid doesn’t discriminate based on DNA, they discriminate based on skin color. My better half did a DNA analysis and they are more European than me! However what you see is only skin color. What you see is what you get! Don’t try to divide and conquer your enemies by slicing them into sections based on DNA, as I said all men came from the African sub-Saharan desert, but the modern day caucasoid chooses to ignore that and exert superiority over Africans AND Asians. Now the caucasoid want to align with my North African ancestry – too little, too late.

          • Rob

            “Provide proof they are NEVER discriminated against based on their skin color?”

            That’s an absurd request.

            I’m certain that people of every race have discriminated based on “skin color”, because that’s an easy way to judge a person’s race.

            When normal people see a Black person we can assume that person is far more likely to be more violent, and far less intelligent, than we are.

    • Rob

      Black-White IQ Distribution:

      For a graphical representation of the racial IQ gap Google: racial IQ bell curve

      Percentages below are from a cumulative percentages graph for readability:

      Blacks:
                       5% above 110 IQ
                       16% above 100 IQ
                       40% above 90 IQ
                       70% above 80 IQ
                       30% below 80 IQ
                       18% below 75 IQ
                       10% below 70 IQ

      Whites:
                       10% above 120 IQ
                       18% above 115 IQ
                       27% above 110 IQ
                       40% above 105 IQ
                       50% above 100 IQ
                       60% below 105 IQ
                       35% below 95 IQ
                       15% below 85 IQ

      So, the smartest 16% of Blacks are as intelligent as smartest 50% of Whites. 80% of Blacks score at or below the “low functioning” category.

      The least intelligent ten percent of Whites have IQs below 80; forty percent of Blacks have IQs that low.

      Only one Black in six is more intelligent than the average White; five Whites out of six are more intelligent than the average Black.

      These differences show in every test of general cognitive ability that anyone, of any race or nationality, has yet been able to devise. And they are reflected in countless everyday situations, “Life is an IQ test.”

      Further, only one-in-3.5 million (.00003%) African Blacks have an IQ of 140 or higher (genius level). But one-in-83 (1.2%) U.S. Whites is a genius. Therefore the per capita genius rate for U.S.-resident Whites is 41,000 times higher than it is for African Blacks.

      As the New York Times put it, “…the difference in I.Q. points between the groups is quite significant. It means that the top sixth of Blacks score only as well on I.Q. tests as do the top half of Whites.”

      Black females have higher IQs than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 120 and five times as many Black females as Black males with IQs over 140.

      Professer Jensen, of Berkeley, looked at the social competency of people with low IQs and found that Blacks at low IQ were more socially competent than Whites. When you analyze a White person with a 70 IQ, then you’re looking at someone who is two SD below the White mean IQ, while a Black with an IQ of 70 is only one SD below the Black IQ mean.

      Blacks with a 70 IQ are more socially competent than Whites with the same IQ. A Black can be clinically retarded without this retardation being fully socially expressed because Black children of 70 IQ are normal. American Black’s have a mean IQ of 85, so 70 IQ is only one standard deviation below the Black mean. 16% of Black kids in the U.S. are below one standard deviation for the Black population. They are normal Black kids in terms of normality, though not in terms of ability; they were rather like white kids of IQ 85 who are one standard deviation below the white IQ mean of 100. A full 16% of white kids are below one standard deviation of the white intelligence mean. Only about 2% of white kids are below two standard deviations, IQ 70, whereas 16% of black kids are.

      In sum, a higher percentage of Whites at 70 IQ (two standard deviations below the White mean) have something wrong with their brains due to injury or genetic disorder, and a larger percentage of Blacks at 70 IQ are normal for Blacks (one standard deviation below the Black mean IQ).

      ~~~~~

      Digit Span Tests

      In digit span tests, the respondents are asked to repeat a string of digits. There are two variants of the test, forward digit span (FDS) and backward digit span (BDS). In FDS, the digits are repeated in the order of their presentation, while in BDS they must be repeated in the reverse order. The largest number of digits that a person can repeat without error is his or her forward or backward digit span.

      That the Black-White gap on FDS is substantially smaller than on BDS is a robust finding confirmed in new analysis. This poses a challenge to the argument that racial differences in exposure to the kinds of information that are needed in cognitive tests cause the Black-White test score gap. The informational demands of the digit span tests are minimal, as only the knowledge of numbers from 1 to 9 is required. FDS is a simple memory test assessing the ability to store information and immediately recall it. The informational demands of BDS are the same as those of FDS, but the requirement that the digits be repeated in the reverse order means that it is not simply a memory test, but one that also requires mental transformation or manipulation of the information presented.

      Black-White Digit Span:

      Forward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
        0.01                 0.04                   0.16

      Backward Digit Span Difference

      Age 7              Age 9               Age 11
       0.43                 0.31                  0.36

      It was predicted that forward digit span (FDS) should correlate less with IQ than backward digit span (BDS), and age and race should interact with FDS-BDS, with the FDS-BDS difference decreasing as a junction of age and a greater White-Black difference in BDS than in FDS. The predictions were substantiated at a high level of significance in large representative samples of 669 White and 622 Black 5-12 yr olds who were given the revised WISC. Socioeconomic differences accounted for less of the predicted effects than race. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

      The “backward digit span” test is not reinforced by any socialization and is not a taught skill for either race; Whites score better at recalling digits presented in order, but recalling the digits in reverse order requires mental transformation and is a good predictor of IQ. The race gap for the backward digit span is twice as great as for the forward test.

      In sum, race differences are most pronounced on tests that best measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      ~~~~~~~~~

      Mental Chronometry or Reaction Time Tests

      Mental chronometry measures the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response by the participant.

      The races differ on average cognitive speed. Even the speed with which one neuron in the brain fires correlates with IQ.

      Reaction time is one of the simplest culture-free cognitive measures. Most reaction time tasks are so easy that children can perform them in less than one second. But even on these very simple tests, children with higher IQ scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain’s capacity to process information accurately—the same ability measured by intelligence tests (Deary, 2000; Jensen, 1998b). Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher IQ scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.

      For three reaction time tasks (the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks), individuals with higher IQ scores average faster and less variable reaction times. For any one task, the correlation between reaction time and IQ normally lies between .20 and .40. A review of several studies concluded that the six measures combined (i.e., the average time and the variability for the three reaction time tasks) produce a multiple correlation of .67 (Deary, 2000). This is about the same magnitude as the correlation between two conventional intelligence tests of reasoning ability and vocabulary.

      Lynn and his colleagues carried out a series of reaction time studies on over 1,000 nine-year-old East Asian children in Japan and Hong Kong, White children in Britain and Ireland, and Black children in South Africa (summarized by Lynn & Vanhannen, 2002, pp. 66–67). The Progressive Matrices were given as a nonverbal test of intelligence, along with the simple, choice, and odd-man-out tasks. Reaction times and variabilities were measured by computer and hence were not subject to any human error in recording.

      Measured IQ scores of the reaction time test participants:
      Hong Kong: 113
      Japan: 110
      Briton: 100
      Ireland: 89
      South Africa: 67

      Odd-man Out Reaction Time Test (milliseconds):
      Hong Kong: 787
      Japan: 818
      Briton: 898
      Ireland: 902
      South Africa: 924

      ~~~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Year:

             Year              White             Black               Gap
             1986              1038               839                 199
             1990              1031               849                 185
             1996              1052               857                 195
             2000              1060               859                 201
             2005              1061               863                 197
             2010              1063               855                 208

      Source: U.S. Dept. of Education, Digest of Education Statistics, 2012

      Frey and Detterman (2003) analyzed the correlation of SAT scores with intelligence test scores. They found SAT scores to be highly correlated with general mental ability, or g (r=.82 in their sample).

      Abstract

      This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.

      Frey MC, Detterman DK.

      PMID: 15147489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

      ~~~~~

      New York Times, 2003:

      The SAT captures more than a narrow range of skills, important only in the first year or two of college. Large-scale meta-analyses by researchers at the University of Minnesota have found that SAT performance is as good of a predictor of overall college grade point average as it is of freshman grade point average, and Vanderbilt researchers David Lubinski and Camilla Benbow have documented that the SAT predicts life outcomes well beyond the college years, including income and occupational achievements.

      Furthermore, the SAT is largely a measure of general intelligence. Scores on the SAT correlate very highly with scores on standardized tests of intelligence, and like IQ scores, are stable across time and not easily increased through training, coaching or practice. SAT preparation courses appear to work, but the gains are small — on average, no more than about 20 points per section.

      ~~~~~

      ACT Scores by Race:

             Year              White             Black               Asian
             2009              22.2               16.9                 23.2
             2010              22.3               16.9                 23.4
             2011              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2012              22.4               17.0                 23.6
             2013              22.2               16.9                 23.5
            
      Source: ACT, Inc.

      Note that there is no closing of the large and persistent so-called “achievement gap”.

      In 2015 only 16% of Blacks scored 1550 or higher, the threshold the College Board calls the “college and career readiness” level.

      This racial achievement gap is so significant that colleges give a “race bonus” of 230 points to Blacks and penalize Asians by 50 points to try to keep it even.

      ~~~~~~

      Percent by Race Reaching the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark:

                       15% = Black
                       24% = Non-White Hispanic
                       35% = Native American
                       53% = White
                       56% = Asian               

      Source: The College Board, 2014

      ~~~~~

      Black-White SAT Score Gap by Income:

             Year              White              Black               Gap
             -$20k              978                 798                 180
             $40k               995                 836                 159
             $60k               1017               864                 153
             $80k               1032               889                 143
             $100k             1052               908                 144
             $120k             1066               922                 144
             $140k             1073               926                 147
             $160k             1087               942                 145
             $200k             1091               943                 148
             +200k             1130               981                 149

      Source: The College Board, 2008

      So, Blacks from families earning more than $200k only scored 3 points higher than Whites from families earning less than $20k.

      We will continue with racial preferences in college admissions and job hiring. We will continue to blame black underachievement on racism. We will continue to dumb down education and occupational standards in order to achieve higher proportions of Blacks.

      Differences in intelligence between income groups are not larger than intelligence differences between racial groups in the US, nor do differences in income or wealth account for the racial differences. Whites from households in the lowest income bracket have higher IQ scores than blacks from households in the highest income bracket.

      Black students coming from families earning over $70,000 USD are doing worse on their SATs on average than White students from families in the lowest income group.

      One of the largest modern sociology studies of American students found that ethnicity was the single most important predictor of academic achievement:

      “Beyond the Classroom,” by Laurence Steinberg, B. Bradford Brown and Sanford M. Dornbusch, concludes “Of all the demographic factors we studied in relation to school performance, ethnicity was the most important. In terms of school achievement, it is more advantageous to be Asian than to be wealthy, or to have non-divorced parents, or to have a mother who is able to stay at home full time.”

      A number of experiments are able to test all of these environmental theories. Transracial adoption experiments control for all the shared aspects of the environment that differ between Whites and Blacks (parenting, income, nutrition, neighborhood), while structural equation models test for possible uncommon factors between Whites and Blacks that could be acting on IQ (which would include things like racism). These experiments do not lend support to any existing or plausible environmental theories for the remaining lower intelligence scores of people of African descent in Western societies. The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study found that, by adulthood, the difference in IQ scores between adopted black and adopted White children raised side by side in the same high income households in mostly homogeneous Northern US upper class neighborhoods was 18 IQ points.

      ~~~~~~~

      The large and persistent so-called “achievement gap” has remain steady since it was first observed.

      Evidence of the racial achievement gap has been manifested through standardized test scores, high school dropout rates, high school completion rates, college acceptance and retention rates, and longitudinal trends.

      It has been found to exist before students enter kindergarten for their first year of schooling. At the start of kindergarten, Black students have math and reading scores substantially lower than those of White students. In a study published in 2009, Reardon and Galindo (2009) specifically examine test scores by race. The data comes from the ECLS-K, sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics. The ECLS-K contains data on a nationally representative sample of approximately 21,400 students from the kindergarten class of 1998–1999. Students in the sample were assessed in reading and mathematics skills six times from 1998 to 2004. The content areas of the tests are based on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) fourth-grade content areas, adapted to be age appropriate at each grade level. The assessments were scored using a three-parameter Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Reardon and Galindo found that average Black students begin kindergarten with math scores three quarters of a standard deviation lower than those of White students. Six years later the gap widens by about a third.

      The racial group differences across admissions tests, such as the SAT, ACT, GRE, GMAT, MCAT, LSAT, Advanced Placement Program examinations and other measures of educational achievement, have been consistent. Since the 1960s, the population of students taking these assessments has become increasingly diverse. Consequently, the examination of ethnic score differences have been more rigorous. Specifically, the largest gaps exist between White and Black students. On average, Blacks score about .82 to 1.18 standard deviations lower than White students in composite test scores.

      The National Assessment of Educational Progress reports the national Black-White gap in math and reading assessments, measured at the 4th and 8th grade level. The trends show the achievement gaps staying the same.

      ~~~~~~~

      Racial Scoring Gap on Standardized Graduate Tests

      — Black Student Score Results on the Medical College Admission Test

      In 2005 the mean combined score for Black students who took the Medical College Admission Test was 21.2. (Each of the three sections of the MCAT test is scored on a scale of 1 to 15.) For Whites, the mean score on the combined three portions of the MCAT test was 28.5. Therefore, the White score was about 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Test for Admission to Business School

      The mean Black score on the GMAT was 425. (The test is scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for each section of the SAT test.) For Whites, the mean GMAT score was 532. This is 107 points or 18 percent higher than the mean score for Blacks.

      The average GMAT score for admitted students at the nation’s leading business schools is over 700. Perhaps only 1 or 2 percent of all Black GMAT test takers score at this level. Therefore, without continuing affirmative action admissions programs at Harvard, Penn, Stanford, Northwestern, MIT, and other top MBA programs, the nation’s leading business schools will have very few Black students.

      The latest JBHE survey shows that Blacks make up about 5 percent of the students at the nation’s leading business schools. If affirmative action admissions programs were to be discontinued, Black enrollments at these schools might drop by 75 percent.

      — Very Few Blacks Score at the Highest Levels of the Law School Admission Test

      In 1998 the mean score of White students taking the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) was 151.96. (The LSAT is graded on a scoring scale of 120 to 180.) The mean score for Black students taking the test that year was 141.80, about 17 percent lower than the mean score of Whites.

      The latest data shows a slight improvement for both Blacks and Whites, but there was no progress in closing the racial scoring gap. In 2004 the mean score for Whites on the LSAT was 152.47. For Blacks, the mean score was 142.43. The 10 point, or 17 percent, scoring gap has remained constant throughout the period with only very minor fluctuations.

      Students seeking admission to the nation’s highest-ranked law schools such as Yale, Harvard, and Stanford have a mean LSAT score of about 170. Data obtained by JBHE from the Law School Admission Council shows that very few Blacks nationwide score at this level.

      In 2004, 10,370 Blacks took the LSAT examination. Only 29 Blacks, or 0.3 percent of all LSAT test takers, scored 170 or above. In contrast, more than 1,900 White test takers scored 170 or above on the LSAT. They made up 3.1 percent of all White test takers. Thus Whites were more than 10 times as likely as Blacks to score 170 or above on the LSAT. There were 66 times as many Whites as Blacks who scored 170 or above on the test.

      Even if we drop the scoring level to 165, a level equal to the mean score of students enrolling at law schools ranked in the top 10 nationwide but not at the very top, we still find very few Blacks. There were 108 Blacks scoring 165 or better on the LSAT in 2004. They made up 1 percent of all Black test takers. For Whites, there were 6,689 test takers who scored 165 or above. They made up 10.6 percent of all White students who took the LSAT examination.

      The nation’s top law schools could fill their classes exclusively with students who scored 165 or above on the LSAT. But if they were to do so, these law schools would have almost no Black students.

      — The Racial Scoring Gap on the Graduate Record Examination

      The vast majority of Black graduate students do not attend professional schools of law, business, or medicine. Most Black students are enrolled in graduate programs in other academic disciplines including education, natural sciences, mathematics, foreign languages, the humanities, the arts, history, psychology, and the social sciences. For these students the important test is the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

      This test begins with two analytical writing sections, one where the student is given a choice of topics. The analytical writing section is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Then there is a 30-minute verbal reasoning test and a 45-minute quantitative section. The test is given on a computer terminal and the test is adaptive, meaning that the test questions are selected based on correct or incorrect responses to previous questions. These two sections are scored on the familiar 200 to 800 scale used for the SAT test.

      Each year about 300,000 college students seeking admission to graduate programs in fields such as education, the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences sit for the GRE. In 2003, the latest year for which there is complete data available, 27,267 Blacks took the GRE test. Therefore, Blacks made up 8.8 percent of all students who took the GRE.

      In 2003 the mean score for Blacks on the combined verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE was 821. For Whites, the mean combined score was 1062. Thus the mean White score was 241 points, or 20 percent, higher than the mean score for Blacks. This racial scoring gap is even wider than the persistent and growing gap on the SAT test.

      In 2003 the mean Black score on the analytical writing section was 3.7 on a scale of 0 to 6. For Whites, the mean score was 4.5, a difference of about 13 percent. There is no way to compare the trend in the gap on this portion of the GRE because the 0 to 6 scale was recently instituted. Previously the analytical section of the test was scored on the 200 to 800 scale.

      The GRE scoring gap between Blacks and Whites varies to a large degree depending on the field of proposed study in graduate school. Black students planning to study in the field of engineering scored on average 187 points below whites who plan to pursue a graduate degree in engineering. In the physical sciences, Black students on average scored 247 points below Whites.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Effects of Affirmative Action

      Quota admittees drop out more often, avoid college science and math, and flunk post-graduation professional tests.

      The SAT scores of White applicants to U.S. colleges and universities have been, on average, about 200 points higher than those of their Black counterparts. Nonetheless, Black students have been admitted to virtually all academically competitive schools at much higher rates than Whites. At Amherst College in 1995, for instance, 51 percent of Black applicants were admitted vs. just 19 percent of White applicants. At Rice University that same year, the corresponding numbers were 52 percent and 25 percent for Blacks and Whites, respectively. At Bowdoin College, the figures were 70 percent and 30 percent.

      At the five most elite American, Black applicants whose SAT scores fell within the 1200 to 1249 range had a 60 percent chance of admission, whereas Whites with similar scores had just a 19 percent chance.

      At medical schools the situation is much the same. The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores of Blacks who are accepted are actually lower than those of Whites who are rejected. At the University of Maryland Medical School in 2000, Blacks with college GPAs of B or B+ and MCAT scores in the bottom half of all test-takers had a 70 percent chance of admission; for Whites and Asians of similar credentials, the chance was 2 percent.

      At America’s top law schools, Blacks are admitted at fully 17 times the rate that a colorblind process would allow. At UCLA Law School in 1994, a Black applicant with a college GPA between 2.5 and 3.5, and an LSAT score between 60 and 90, had a 61 percent chance of admission. The corresponding rates for similarly qualified Asians and Whites were 7 percent and 1 percent, respectively. Consider also Texas Law School, which in 1992 rejected 668 White applicants before rejecting a single Black. Fully 100 percent of Blacks who scored between 189 and 192 in the school’s academic rating system were admitted, as compared to just 6 percent of Whites.

      So-called “diversity degrees” were created with soft curricula to allow Blacks an easier opportunity to earn a degree than is possible in the hard sciences.

      College majors with the highest percentage of Whites (63% of U.S. population):

             Forestry: 93% White
             Natural Resources Management: 92% White
             Agriculture Production and Management: 92% White
             Plant Science and Agronomy: 92% White
             Nuclear Engineering: 91% White
             Animal Sciences: 91% White
             Soil Science: 91% White
             Miscellaneous Agriculture: 90% White
             Agricultural Economics: 90% White
             Art and Music Education: 90% White

      College majors with the highest percentage of Asians (6% of U.S. population):

             Computer Engineering: 33% Asian
             Statistics and Decision Science: 30% Asian
             Neuroscience: 27% Asian
             Biomedical Engineering: 26% Asian
             Other Foreign Languages: 26% Asian
             Electrical Engineering: 22% Asian
             Military Technologies: 22% Asian
             Biochemical Sciences: 20% Asian
             Applied Mathematics: 20% Asian
             Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences and Administration: 20% Asian

      College majors with the highest percentage of Blacks (14% of U.S. population):

             School Student Counseling: 38% Black
             Human Services and Community Organization: 21% Black
             Counseling Psychology: 20% Black
             Health and Medical Administrative Services: 18% Black
             Public Administration: 18% Black
             Social Work: 16% Black
             Miscellaneous Social Sciences: 16% Black
             General Medical and Health Services: 15% Black
             Public Policy: 15% Black

    • Rob

      Blacks have small brains

      Would you expect a population of small-brain people to have a higher, lower or equal IQ as compared to a population of large-brain people?

      Compared to Blacks, Whites’ brains:

           •   are 7% larger (1438cc versus 1343cc)
           •   are 100 grams heavier
           •   have deeper fissuration in the frontal and occipital regions
           •   have more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes
           •   have more pyramidal neurons
           •   have 16% thicker supra-grandular layer
           •   react faster on mental chronometry tests
           •   have 600 million more neurons (each carries about 600 billion synapses, which each carry one bit of cortical information)

      Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      The correlation between brain size and IQ across 25 primate species is 0.77 (where 1.0 indicates that monozygotic twins have no variance in IQ and 0 indicates that their IQs are completely uncorrelated).

      Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      The average White brain is 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1343cc, or 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks. The White and Asians brain also has a higher degree of fissuring (higher complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      There are also racial differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Based on studies of brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies Blacks’ brain size is 7% smaller than Whites’, and 8% smaller than Asians’. There is a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40 and that these racial differences in brain size are present at birth. Genes contribute to about 90% of the individual variation of brain size.

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      The average human brain contains 86 billion neurons. Whites, on average, have 600 million more neurons than Blacks. Each neuron carries about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      ~~~~~~~~~~

      Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences

      AUTHORS: Pietschnig, Penke, Wicherts, Zeiler, Voracek

      ABSTRACT: “By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples. Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ.”

      2015, October

      PMID: 26449760

      ~~~~~~~~

      Brain mass differences between racial groups in the US

      Jensen (1998) summarizes the brain mass findings from the Case-Western Reserve (1980) study (N= 811 W, 450 B). An age matched and height adjusted B-W differences of ~100g (~.78SD) was found, which is commensurate with the findings of Bean (1906), Mall (1909), Pearl (1934), and Vint (1934) as described in Rushton and Ankney (2009). Holloway (2002) found a B-W difference of 63 grams (N = 1,391 W; 615 Black). Similar findings have been found based in imaging studies (see 5). In their study, Isamah, et al. (2010) found that African Americans have 1 SD less total cerebrum volume than European Americans.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Contrary to most purely environmental theories, racial differences in brain size show up early in life. Data from the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project on 19,000 Black children and 17,000 White children showed that Black children had a smaller head perimeter at birth and, although Black children were born shorter in stature and lighter in weight than White children, by age 7 ‘catch-up growth’ led Black children to be larger in body size than White children. However, Blacks remained smaller in head perimeter (Broman et al., 1987). Further, head perimeter at birth, 1 year, 4 years, and 7 years correlated with IQ scores at age 7 in both Black and White children (r = 0.13 to 0.24).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      “Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause,” write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

      “Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables,” said Rushton. “Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That’s why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence.”

      1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores; East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

      2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g); Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

      3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities; Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

      4. Brain Size Differences; Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

      5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies; Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

      6. Racial Admixture Studies; Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race “Colored” population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

      -June 2005, Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      According to a new study, just published in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) newsroom, scientists have definitively found the genes which control brain size and intelligence.

      Dozens of studies have found race differences in brain size, whether measured by MRI, endocranial volume, brain weight at autopsy or external head size (with or without corrections for body size).

      Most were carried out on the three major races of East Asians, Europeans, and Africans. Averaging all the data, the following figures have emerged: Brain size average for East Asians = 1364cm; Whites = 1347cm; and Blacks = 1267cm.

      The overall mean for East Asians was 17cm more than for Whites and 97cm more than for Blacks.

      Since every cubic centimeter of brain tissue contains millions of brain cells and billions of synapses, the race differences in brain size help to explain the race differences in IQ.

      The latest overview, billed as the “world’s largest brain study to date,” saw a team of more than 200 scientists from 100 institutions worldwide collaborate to map the human genes that boost or sabotage the brain’s resistance to a variety of mental illnesses and Alzheimer’s disease.

      Additionally, the study (also published in the journal Nature Genetics), found new genes which control “differences in brain size and intelligence.”

      “We searched for two things in this study,” said senior author Paul Thompson, professor of neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging.

      “We hunted for genes that increase your risk for a single disease that your children can inherit. We also looked for factors that cause tissue atrophy and reduce brain size, which is a biological marker for disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.”

      Three years ago, Thompson’s lab partnered with geneticists Nick Martin and Margaret Wright at the Queensland Institute for Medical Research in Brisbane, Australia, and with geneticist Barbara Franke of Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands.

      The four investigators recruited brain-imaging labs around the world to pool their brain scans and genomic data, and Project ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) was born.

      “Our individual centers couldn’t review enough brain scans to obtain definitive results,” said Thompson, who is also a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

      “By sharing our data with Project ENIGMA, we created a sample large enough to reveal clear patterns in genetic variation and show how these changes physically alter the brain.”

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Recent reviews (by Nisbett et al. (2012b) and Mackintosh (2011)) confirm current data does show an average difference in brain size and head-circumference between American Blacks and Whites.

      Brain size is found to have a correlation of about .35 with intelligence and cites studies showing that genes may account for as much as 90% of individual variation in brain size, concluding that race differences in average brain size could be an important argument for genetic contribution to racial IQ gaps.

      – Considerations Relating to the Study of Group Differences in Intelligence, Earl Hunt1 and Jerry Carlson, The University of Washington
      – American Psychologist, Vol 67(6), Sep 2012, 503-504

      On the outside, there’s not a lot of difference between Black heads and White ones. There is a slight difference, however, with Whites having the larger heads. But the big difference is in the size of the brain. Blacks have thicker skulls, which means that a higher percentage of their head is bone instead of brain.

      Blacks are the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which appeared about 37,000 years ago and is associated with increased brain volume.

      Empirical data obtained from brain weight at autopsy, endocranial volume of empty skulls, head size measurements by the U.S. military and NASA, and two dozen MRI volumetric studies have shown that brain volumes average 1427 cubic centimeters for Whites, but only 1361 cubic centimeters for Blacks.

      In weight measurements, the brains of African Blacks were found to weigh an average of 1157 grams, whereas those of pure Whites weighed an average of 1323 grams. The brains of US-resident Blacks, who have a bit of White mixture in their genetic makeup, average 1223 grams in weight.

      That 100-gram weight difference, between White Americans and US-resident Blacks, corresponds to an approximate 600 million neuron advantage for Whites. In 600 million neurons, there are about 600 billion synapses, each of which carries, as a minimum, one bit of cortical information.

      Also, Whites have a larger genus to splenium ratio (front to back part of corpus callosum), which indicates that Whites probably have more activity in the frontal lobes which are thought to be the seat of intelligence. One study found that White cerebrums exhibited 14% more sulsification, or fissuring, as compared with those of Blacks. So, not only are White brains larger, they are also significantly more complex.

      Blacks also have considerably smaller frontal lobes. Frontal lobes are responsible for planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making and moderating social behavior.

      This is a genetic trait because even malnourished Asians from poor countries have a larger brain on average than well fed blacks from western countries.

      Sources:

      Willerman et al. (1991) Using MRI obtained r’s ranging from .26 to .56 between IQ and the size of specific brain structures and an overall r of .38 between full-scale IQ and gray matter volume when body size is controlled for. Replications by Raz et al. (1993) and Wickett, Vernon and Lee (1994) found correlations between IQ and brain size of .41 and .47-49. Egan et al. (1994) found an r of .32 between IQ and brain size in a sample whose SD for IQ was 9.3.

      Beals, K. L., Smith, C. L., & Dodd, S. M. (1984). Brain size, cranial morphology, climate, and time machines. Current Anthropology 25, 301–330.

      Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g Factor. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Rushton, J. P. & Ankney, C. D. (1996). Brain size and cognitive ability: Correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 3, 21-36.

      Ho, K. C., Roessmann, U., Straumfjord, J. V., & Monroe, G. (1980). Analysis of brain weight: I and II. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 104, 635–645.

      Johnson F. W. & Jensen (1994). Race and sex differences in head size and IQ. Intelligence 18: 309–33

      Rushton JP. (1997). Cranial size and IQ in Asian Americans from birth to age seven. Intelligence 25: 7–20.

      Rushton JP (1991). Mongoloid-Caucasoid differences in brain size from military samples [and NASA]. Intelligence 15: 351–9.

      Cranial Capacities:

      Study                    Black               White                Asian             Black/White

      Ho et al., 1980          1267                1370                                   .92

      Gould, 1981              1356                1426                 1426              .95

      Beals, 1984             1276                1362                 1380              .93

      Herskovits, 1993         1295                1421                 1451              .91

      Ruston (Army) 92         1346                1361                 1403              .98

      Ruston (ILO), 1994       1228                1284                 1312              .95
                  

      ————–

      Abstract:

      Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic.

      General intelligence is an important human quantitative trait that accounts for much of the variation in diverse cognitive abilities. Individual differences in intelligence are strongly associated with many important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainments, income, health and lifespan. Data from twin and family studies are consistent with a high heritability of intelligence, but this inference has been controversial. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of 3511 unrelated adults with data on 549 692 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and detailed phenotypes on cognitive traits. We estimate that 40% of the variation in crystallized-type intelligence and 51% of the variation in fluid-type intelligence between individuals is accounted for by linkage disequilibrium between genotyped common SNP markers and unknown causal variants. These estimates provide lower bounds for the narrow-sense heritability of the traits. We partitioned genetic variation on individual chromosomes and found that, on average, longer chromosomes explain more variation. Finally, using just SNP data we predicted ~1% of the variance of crystallized and fluid cognitive phenotypes in an independent sample (P=0.009 and 0.028, respectively). Our results unequivocally confirm that a substantial proportion of individual differences in human intelligence is due to genetic variation, and are consistent with many genes of small effects underlying the additive genetic influences on intelligence.

      Molecular Psychiatry, 2011: 996-1005.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      Intelligence

      Volume 18, Issue 3, May–June 1994, Pages 309–333

      Race and sex differences in head size and IQ
      Arthur R. Jensen, Fred W. Johnson

      Abstract

      An analysis of IQ in relation to head size (and by inference, brain size) was performed on some 14,000 children and their full siblings, almost evenly divided by race (white and black) and sex, on whom data were obtained at ages 4 and 7 years in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Within each race × sex group, IQ is significantly correlated with head size, age and body size having been partialed out. A significant positive correlation between IQ × head size exists not only within subjects (at ages 4 and 7) but also within families and between families (at age 7 only). The within-families correlation (at age 7) is consistent with an intrinsic or pleiotropic correlation between the mental and physical variables. No significant positive correlation within families appeared at age 4, despite a significant within-subjects correlation at that age. As yet, there are only speculative explanations of the disparity between the age 4 and 7 within-family correlations of head size with IQ. Although general body size is also correlated with IQ within subjects and between families, the correlation does not exist within families in either age group, which rules out a pleiotropic correlation between body size and IQ. There are both race and sex differences in head size, although the sex difference in IQ is nil. White and black children who are matched on IQ show, on average, virtually zero difference in head size.

      Correspondence and requests for reprints should be sent to Arthur R. Jensen, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

    • Rob

      Blacks are violent

      Blacks have mean testosterone levels 19% higher than in whites. This is why 1-in-4 Black men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer but only 1-in-8 White men and 1-in-13 Asian men will. Testosterone is associated with impulsive, aggressive and violent behavior.

      The Black homicide rate is 17 per 100,000, a rate over 9x that of the White rate, and comparable to some of those most murderous countries in the world.

      If the homicide rate for the country as a whole were the White-only rate, the homicide rate would drop 84%, making the U.S. rate comparable to European countries.

      Black males age 18-35 are only 4% of the U.S. population, yet commit 50% of homicides. Black males (all ages) are only 6% of the U.S. population, yet commit 46% of all violent crimes, and 50% of the gun homicides. If Blacks were removed from the equation, the U.S. gun homicide rate would be equal to Great Britain’s, who have some of the most restrictive gun control laws in the world.

      Therefore, the U.S. has a Black problem, not a gun or violent crime problem.

      In 2013, according to FBI statistics, Blacks committed an average of 486,945 violent crimes against Whites, whereas Whites committed only 99,403 violent crimes against Blacks. This means Blacks were the attackers in 84.5 percent of the violent crimes involving Blacks and Whites. By age 23, half of Blacks males have been arrested.

      Blacks have a very high percentage carrying the dysfunctional form of the MAOA gene which does not produce a protein needed to break down old serotonin in their brains. This causes them to be agitated, aggressive and impulsive. The popular term for this is the “warrior gene” which could be considered propaganda to put a positive spin on those who possess this dysfunctional gene which is highly-correlated to criminality.

      Comprehensive Psychiatry published a large study on the rates at which black and white Americans carry shortened, or dysfunctional, MAOA genes.

      The gene can come in the form of 2, 3, 3.5, 4, or 5 allele. A 3-repeat allele is considered dysfunctional and is what is referred to as the “warrior gene”. A 2-repeat allele is considered very dysfunctional. People with a 2-repeat allele MAOA gene have a permanent chemical imbalance in their brain making the person more likely to be agitated, aggressive, and impulsive.

      According to the study published in Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34.6% of Whites and 53.4% of Blacks have 2-repeat allele or less. However, only .5% of whites have the 2-repeat (2R) allele version compared to 4.7% of blacks.

      That means Blacks are 9.4 times more likely to have the extremely dysfunctional version of the gene than Whites. Considering that Black Americans are 9 times more likely to commit murder, this is very significant.

      Other studies have shown even higher rates of occurrence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele version of the gene in Blacks.

      It was discovered that Black males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence (shooting and stabbing) than Black men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R.

      The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. The MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences

      Notes: There are other genes associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior. The MAOA gene is only one of them. However, the effects of a shortened MAOA gene are well documented. The chemical imbalance its creates can be observed in a laboratory.

      Blacks possess 10x more of the dysfunctional MAOA (or “warrior gene”) that is associated with violent and/or impulsive behavior.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~

      Abstract:

      A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles (2-repeat and 3-repeat alleles) against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles (3.5-repeat, 4-repeat, and sometimes 5-repeat alleles), with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. The current study examined whether the 2-repeat allele, which has been shown to be functionally different from the 3-repeat allele, was associated with a range of antisocial phenotypes in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. Additional analyses revealed that African-American male carriers of the 2-repeat allele scored significantly higher on an antisocial phenotype index and on measures assessing involvement in violent behaviors over the life course. There was not any association between the 2-repeat allele and a continuously measured psychopathic personality traits scale. The effects of the 2-repeat allele could not be examined in Caucasian males because only 0.1% carried it.

      Authors: Kevin M. Beavera, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnesd, Matt DeLisie, Michael G. Vaughnf

      ~~~

      Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use.

      Beaver KM1, DeLisi M, Vaughn MG, Barnes JC.

      ABSTRACT:

      A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been found to be associated with a broad range of antisocial phenotypes, including physical violence. At the same time, it is well known that gang members represent some of the most serious violent offenders. Even so, no research has ever examined the association between MAOA and gang membership.

      RESULTS:

      The low MAOA activity alleles conferred an increased risk of joining a gang and using a weapon in a fight for males but not for females. Moreover, among male gang members, those who used weapons in a fight were more likely to have a low MAOA activity allele when compared with male gang members who do not use weapons in a fight.

      CONCLUSIONS:

      Male carriers of low MAOA activity alleles are at risk for becoming a gang member and, once a gang member, are at risk for using weapons in a fight.

      Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

      PMID: 20152292

      ~~~

      Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men.

      Blacks in the United States have the highest prostate cancer rate in the world and nearly twice that of whites in the United States. The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur. This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than in whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45-8.

      PMID: 3455741

      ~~~~~~~~

      The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors.

      Beaver KM1, Barnes JC, Boutwell BB.

      Abstract

      There has been a great deal of research examining the link between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene and antisocial phenotypes. The results of these studies have consistently revealed that low activity MAOA alleles are related to antisocial behaviors for males who were maltreated as children. Recently, though, some evidence has emerged indicating that a rare allele of the MAOA gene-that is, the 2-repeat allele-may have effects on violence that are independent of the environment. The current study builds on this research and examines the association between the 2-repeat allele and shooting and stabbing behaviors in a sample of males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carry the 2-repeat allele are significantly more likely than all other genotypes to engage in shooting and stabbing behaviors and to report having multiple shooting and stabbing victims. The limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

      PMID: 24326626

      ~~~~~~~~

      Barnes, B. Genes, agents and the institution of responsible action. New Genetics and Society 21(3), 291-302 (2003).

      Beaver, K. M. et al. Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Compr. Psychiatry 51(2), 130-134 (2009).

      Brunner, H. G. et al. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262, 578-580. (1993).

      Buchen, L. In their nature. Nature 467, 146-148 (2010).

      Caspi, A. et al. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297(5582), 851-854 (2002a).

      Caspi, A. et al. Supplementary material. Description of methods and measurements used in the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. Science 297 (2002b).

      Denno, D. W. “Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: 1994–2007” in Farahany N. A. (ed) The impact of behavioral sciences on criminal law (Oxford University Press, chapter 10, 2009).

      Lea, R. & Chambers, G. Monamine oxidase, addiction and the ‘warrior’ gene hypothesis. New Zealand Medical Journal 120, 1250 (2007).

      Levitt, M. Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behaviour: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people”. New Genetics and Society 32(1), 4-17 (2013).

      Shih, J. C et al. Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behaviour. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22,197-217 (1999).

      ~~~~~~~~

      MAOA is an enzyme that degrades neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain — is coded for by the MAOA gene. Neurotransmitters play a pivotal role in mood, arousal, and emotions, even affecting impulse control. Since the 1990s scientists have identified several versions of the MAOA, which are usually categorized as low-activity or high-activity variants. MAOA genes are classified based on how many times a short sequence — a functional strip of DNA — repeats itself within a variable region of the gene. The most common variant, MAOA-4R, has four repeats and is associated with high-activity breakdown of neurotransmitters. Alternate forms of the MAOA, including the 2-repeat (2R) and 3-repeat (3R) versions, contain fewer repeat sequences.

      The 2R and 3R variants are often lumped together in studies of the low-activity MAOA gene. (Although the 5R version has a large number of repeats, it too is less active than the 4R version.) The two classes of MAOA versions correlate with different behavioral tendencies. Low-activity variants are thought to lead to reduced levels of MAOA in the brain, possibly shifting mood by changing serotonin levels.

      But it was 2R — the “extreme warrior gene” — that captivated researchers searching for a genetic basis of criminal predispositions. Guo’s team analyzed data on male youth from Add Health — a national sample of adolescents in grades 7-12. Their findings showed that the rare variant, 2R, was correlated with higher levels of self-reported serious and violent delinquency.

      More recently, Beaver’s team has focused only on the 2R variant rather than the low-expression variants combined. He and his colleagues have discovered that African American males carrying 2R were more likely to be involved in extreme violence — shooting and stabbing — than African American men with other MAOA variants. The relationship between the rare MAOA version and antisocial behaviors has raised eyebrows because, quite simply, this gene is not distributed equally across ethnic groups. In the Add Health database, 5.5% of African American men, 0.9% of Caucasian men, and 0.00067% of Asian men have 2R. Since the rare MAOA variant is virtually non-existent in whites, all of the males in Beaver’s study were black Americans.

      Beaver’s sample of 133 African American men from the Add Health database included 6% that carried 2R. Overall, 5.6% of the men in the sample reported shooting or stabbing someone at some point in their lifetime. The association between 2R and committing a shooting or stabbing crime was statistically significant. Based on Beaver’s evidence, 2R appears to increase the risk of shooting or stabbing a victim during adolescence or adulthood. For some commentators in the public arena, MAOA-2R has become a symbol of a new era in behavioral genetics research — an era that has reintroduced race into the nature versus nurture debate over the source of ethnic behavioral differences.

      Beaver’s studies have shown that the 2R variant has a robust association with violent behaviors, arrest, and incarceration. His research is applauded by supporters of behavioral genetics, but it has also drawn criticism. It focuses on an antisocial-linked gene that reportedly occurs more frequently in African American men than in males of other ethnic groups. This has led some popular writers to speculate that MAOA-2R might account for — or at least play a significant role in — the relatively higher rates of violent crime in African Americans.

      ~~~~~

      Mass and Serial Killers

      Mass Killers:

      There have been 70 mass shooters since 1982.

      45 by whites, 11 by blacks, 6 by Asians, 4 by Latinos, 3 by Native American.

      Per capita:

      Whites make up 77.7% of the populations and 64% of the shootings -13.7
      Latinos make up 17.1% of the populations and 5.7% of the shootings -11.4
      Blacks make up 13.2% of the populations and 15% of the shootings +1.8
      Asians make up 5.3% of the populations and 8.5% of the shootings +3.2
      Native Americans make up 1.2% of the populations and 4% of the shootings +2.8

      Serial Killers:

      According to the FBI 90 percent of serial killers are male, and 46 percent of those are white.

      Black serial killers have comprised over half of documented serial killers since the dawn of the 21st century at 56 percent, making up a total of 40 percent in years dating back to 1900.

      As Blacks are only 13% of the U.S. population they are heavily over-represented as serial killers.

      Criminal profiler Pat Brown says serial killers are usually reported as white because the media typically focuses on “All-American” white and pretty female victims who were the targets of white male offenders, that crimes among minority offenders in urban communities, where crime rates are higher, are under-investigated, and that minority serial killers likely exist at the same ratios as white serial killers for the population. She believes that the myth that serial killers are always white might have become “truth” in some research fields due to the over-reporting of white serial killers in the media.

      According to some sources, the percentage of serial killers who are African American is estimated to be between 13 and 22 percent. Another study has shown that 16 percent of serial killers are African American, what author Maurice Godwin describes as a “sizeable portion”. However, the 2013 Radford/FGCU Serial Killer Database annual statistics show, for the decades 1900–2010, that the percentage of African American serial killers is 40.7%. Popular racial stereotypes about the lower intelligence of African-Americans, and the stereotype that serial killers are white males with “bodies stacked up in the basement and strewn all over the countryside” may explain the media focus on serial killers that are white and the failure to adequately report on those that are black.

      Child Molesters:

      Myth: Whites Are More Likely to be Pedophiles and Child Molesters

      There is a long-standing myth that Whites are more likely to molest children than any other race. This goes back to some stereotype of the creepy, nerdy, weirdo White guy who can’t get laid so he molests kids.

      % of total child abusers:

      White                            51%
      African American                 25%
      Hispanic                         15%
      American Indian/Alaska Natives    2%
      Asian/Pacific Islanders           1%

      Relative to their population, likelihood of child abuse compared to background population rate:
      American Indian    +100%
      Blacks             +92%
      Hispanics          no difference
      Whites             -35%
      Asian              -67%

      ~~~~~

      FBI Table 43 (2013)

      Blacks are 13 percent of the population and commit 32.5% of all crimes against family and children. That is 2.5 times their population.

      Whites are 66 percent of the population and commit 65% of all crimes against family and children. That is 1 times their population.

      Therefore, a Black is 2.5 times more likely to be a pedophile than a White.

    • Rob

      Google: National IQ Congo

      ….then: IQ Koko the gorilla

      LOL

      IQ correlates strongly to job performance, increased wealth, increased income, economic growth, livability in a U.S. state, cooperation, life expectancy and infant mortality.

      It is estimated that a minimum IQ of 90 is required just to maintain a technological society.

      The more White a society is the more successful (safe and prosperous) it is.

      The following intelligence scores came from work carried out earlier this decade by Richard Lynn, a British psychologist, and Tatu Vanhanen, a Finnish political scientist, who analysed IQ studies from 113 countries, and from subsequent work by Jelte Wicherts, a Dutch psychologist. Lynn and Vanhanen benchmarked their IQ results so that Britain is 100. America scores 98 on this scale, and the world average is 90. IQ`s are assumed to form a normal probability distribution (“bell curve”) with the standard deviation set at 15.

      National IQ correlates at 0.73 with living standard.

      Each 10 point increase in IQ generally doubles economic growth, assuming the country has a market economy:

                •   108      Singapore
                •   106      South Korea
                •   105      Japan
                •   105      China
                •   102      Italy
                •   101      Iceland
                •   101      Mongolia
                •   101      Switzerland
                •   100      Austria
                •   100      Luxembourg
                •   100      Netherlands
                •   100      Norway
                •   100      United Kingdom
                •   99        Belgium
                •   99        Canada
                •   99        Estonia
                •   99        Finland
                •   99        Germany
                •   99        New Zealand
                •   99        Poland
                •   99        Sweden
                •   98        Andorra
                •   98        Australia
                •   98        Czech Republic
                •   98        Denmark
                •   98        France
                •   98        Hungary
                •   98        Latvia
                •   98        Spain
                •   98        United States
                •   97        Belarus
                •   97        Malta
                •   97        Russia
                •   97        Ukraine
                •   96        Moldova
                •   96        Slovakia
                •   96        Slovenia
                •   96        Uruguay
                •   95        Israel
                •   95        Portugal
                •   94        Armenia
                •   94        Georgia
                •   94        Kazakhstan
                •   94        Romania
                •   94        Vietnam
                •   93        Argentina
                •   93        Bulgaria
                •   92        Greece
                •   92        Ireland
                •   92        Malaysia
                •   91        Brunei
                •   91        Cambodia
                •   91        Cyprus
                •   91        Lithuania
                •   91        Thailand
                •   90        Albania
                •   90        Bosnia
                •   90        Chile
                •   90        Croatia
                •   90        Kyrgyzstan
                •   90        Turkey
                •   89        Cook Islands
                •   89        Costa Rica
                •   89        Laos
                •   89        Mauritius
                •   89        Serbia
                •   89        Suriname
                •   88        Ecuador
                •   88        Mexico
                •   88        Samoa
                •   87        Azerbaijan
                •   87        Bolivia
                •   87        Brazil
                •   87        Guyana
                •   87        Indonesia
                •   87        Iraq
                •   87        Myanmar
                •   87        Tajikistan
                •   87        Turkmenistan
                •   87        Uzbekistan
                •   86        Kuwait
                •   86        Philippines
                •   86        Seychelles
                •   86        Tonga
                •   85        Cuba
                •   85        Eritrea
                •   85        Fiji
                •   85        Kiribati
                •   85        Peru
                •   85        Trinidad and Tobago
                •   85        Yemen
                •   84        Afghanistan
                •   84        Bahamas
                •   84        Belize
                •   84        Colombia
                •   84        Iran
                •   84        Jordan
                •   84        Marshall Islands
                •   84        Micronesia
                •   84        Morocco
                •   84        Nigeria
                •   84        Pakistan
                •   84        Panama
                •   84        Paraguay
                •   84        Saudi Arabia
                •   84        Solomon Islands
                •   84        Uganda
                •   84        United Arab Emirates
                •   84        Vanuatu
                •   84        Venezuela
                •   83        Algeria
                •   83        Bahrain
                •   83        Libya
                •   83        Oman
                •   83        New Guinea
                •   83        Syria
                •   83        Tunisia
                •   82        Bangladesh
                •   82        Dominican Republic
                •   82        India
                •   82        Lebanon
                •   82        Madagascar
                •   82        Zimbabwe
                •   81        Egypt
                •   81        Honduras
                •   81        Maldives
                •   81        Nicaragua
                •   80        Barbados
                •   80        Bhutan
                •   80        El Salvador
                •   80        Kenya
                •   79        Guatemala
                •   79        Sri Lanka
                •   79        Zambia
                •   78        Congo
                •   78        Nepal
                •   78        Qatar
                •   77        South Africa
                •   76        Cape Verde
                •   76        Congo
                •   76        Mauritania
                •   76        Senegal
                •   74        Mali
                •   74        Namibia
                •   73        Ghana
                •   72        Tanzania
                •   71        Central African Republic
                •   71        Grenada
                •   71        Jamaica
                •   71        St Vincent, Grenadines
                •   71        Sudan
                •   70        Antigua, Barbuda
                •   70        Benin
                •   70        Botswana
                •   70        Rwanda
                •   70        Togo
                •   69        Burundi
                •   69        Cote d’Ivoire
                •   69        Ethiopia
                •   69        Malawi
                •   69        Niger
                •   68        Angola
                •   68        Burkina Faso
                •   68        Chad
                •   68        Djibouti
                •   68        Somalia
                •   68        Swaziland
                •   67        Dominica
                •   67        Guinea
                •   67        Guinea-Bissau
                •   67        Haiti
                •   67        Lesotho
                •   67        Liberia
                •   67        Saint Kitts
                •   67        Sao Tome
                •   66        Gambia
                •   64        Cameroon
                •   64        Gabon
                •   64        Sierra Leone
                •   64        Mozambique
                •   62        Saint Lucia
                •   59        Equatorial Guinea

      A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. A country is classified as a Least Developed Country if it meets three criteria:

      Poverty (adjustable criterion: three-year average GNI per capita of less than US $992, which must exceed $1,190 to leave the list as of 2012)

      Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy) and

      Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters)

      34 of the 47 LDCs are sub-Saharan African. There are a combined 48 sub-Saharan countries with a total population of one billion earning an annual per capita GDP of $1,720 in 2014 USD and a life expectancy of 57 years.

      Some groups succeed all the time, everywhere. Some have never succeeded anywhere. Blacks are the oldest race so they should be the most advanced, but they have never been successful anywhere. Civilization didn’t advance until humans evolved from Blacks by hybridizing with the large-brained Neanderthals which produced a modern human with an increase in cranium capacity and a heavier, more developed brain. Blacks are also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume and density.

    • Rob

      Primitive Traits

      Blacks are a separate species from Whites and Asians

      In addition to brain size are differences in brain shape, fissuration, number of pyramidal neurons and supra-grandular layer thickness. The depth of fissuration is related to superior intelligence and the brains of Whites have deeper fissures in the frontal and occipital regions. The supra-grandular layer of Blacks’ brains is 16% smaller than it is for Whites’ brains.

      Blacks are the only racial group with no DNA from the large-brained Neanderthals, and also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

      Even before birth, population group differences in average brain size are found from the ninth week of intrauterine life with White fetuses averaging larger brain cases and smaller faces than Black fetuses, with the differences becoming more prominent over the course of fetal development.

      Weighing brains at autopsy, Whites averaged heavier brains than Blacks and had more complex convolutions and larger frontal lobes. Subsequent studies have found an average Black–White difference of about 100 g. Studies have found that the more White admixture (judged independently from skin color), the greater the average brain weight in Blacks. In a study of 1,261 American adults, Ho et al. (1980) found that 811 White Americans averaged 1,323 g and 450 Black Americans averaged 1,223 g. Since the Blacks and Whites were similar in body size, differences in body size cannot explain away the differences in brain weight.

      The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.

      Race differences start in the womb. Blacks are born earlier and grow quicker than Whites and Asians. The three-way race pattern occurs in milestones such as sexual maturity, family stability, crime rates, and population growth.

      Black babies mature more quickly than White babies, while Asian babies mature more slowly. Black babies in a sitting position are more able to keep their heads up and backs straight from the start. White babies often need six to eight weeks to do these things. It is unlikely that social factors could produce these differences. A basic law of biology shows that longer infancy is related to greater brain growth.

      Black babies spend the least time in the womb. In America, 51% of Black children have been born by week 39 of pregnancy compared with 33% of White children. In Europe, Black babies of even professional mothers are born earlier than White babies.

      Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their own clothes earlier than Whites or Asians. The findings are measured by such tests as Bayley’s Scales of Mental and Motor Development and the Cambridge Neonatal Scales.

      Asian children, on the other hand, mature more slowly than do White children. Asian children often do not walk until 13 months. Walking starts at 12 months for white children and 11 months for Black children.

      In a combination of 19 studies on Black and White brain sizes, every single one shows Whites with a significantly larger brain size than Blacks. The calculated average White brain is 1398g and 1438cc while the average Black brain is 1275g and 1343cc – 91% and 93% of the average White brain. The heritability of brain size is extremely strong at 0.90 and not one study to date has shown larger brain size for Blacks, nor has any study shown anywhere close to equal brain size or structure for Blacks and Whites.

      The White brain has a high degree of fissuring (higher complexity) and the Black brain has a lower degree of fissuring (lower complexity) in the cerebral cortex of their brains, where abstract and conceptual thought is performed.

      Blacks have smaller skulls than Whites and a lower brain capacity. The long, narrow skull of Blacks is superior at dissipating heat and the more spherical skulls of Whites better retains heat which is explainable by the fact that Blacks evolved in a hot climate (Africa) and Whites evolved in a cold climate (Europe).

      Prognathism, the absence of “Facial flatness”, is significantly higher in Blacks than Whites and even higher in apes. The facial angle for Whites is 82°, 70° for Blacks as well as H.Habilis and H.Erectus, and 60° for gorillas. Prognathism is associated with a sloping forehead, which corresponds to a smaller frontal lobe, which is the part of the brain responsible for abstract and conceptual thinking.

      Blacks have higher rates of primitive traits compared to Whites. Blacks have more robust cranial bones, simpler cranial sutures, a higher rate of unclosed sutures, a lower cephalic index, a higher rate of saggital keel, more post-orbital constriction, a more sloped forehead, more rectangular eye sockets, a wider nasal index, less nasal prominence, a higher rate of joined nasal bones, a higher rate of sub-nasal prognathism, a lower facial angle, the presence of the “Simian shelf”, a more rectangular palate, larger and wider-apart teeth, less spinal curvature, shorter spinal length, a lower sacral index, and longer arms and legs.

      One can undeniably attribute the vast majority of these traits more strongly to chimpanzees, gorillas, H.Erectus, and archaic H.Sapiens compared to modern anatomical humans, hence justifying the label “Primitive.”

      The dome of the Asian skull is round and the face is flat. Although the Caucasian skull is a bit longer, it is very similar to the Asian skull, indicating that the Asians and Caucasians did not separate into two races all that long ago, or that there was interbreeding between their lineages.

      The African skull is quite different from the Asian and Caucasian skulls, indicating a much greater genetic distance between Eurasians and Africans than between Europeans and Asians. Compared to Asian and Caucasian skulls, the African skull is narrower. The bones of the skull (and the rest of the body) are denser and thicker. The eye sockets are rounder and proportionately larger and the distance between them is greater. The slight bump at the top of the head suggests a “saggital keel,” a ridge along the top of the head from the forehead to the back of the skull for attaching chewing muscles and strengthening the skull from blows received in fighting. The opening for the nose is wider, the nose bones protrude less, and the teeth more massive, with the incisors meeting at an angle.

      The most noticeable difference is the protruding jaw, a condition known as “prognathism,” a trait found in apes and in ancient human fossil skulls, even those not from Africa. The considerable gap between the cheekbones (“zygomatic arches”) and the indentation on the sides behind the eye sockets (“post-orbital constriction”) indicate that the more massive jaw was serviced by powerful chewing muscles that passed through the gap.

      At birth, Africans have fewer cranial bones than Eurasians. The skull bones (and other bones) in Africans are thicker and denser, even in the fetus, making them more difficult to break, which is an aid in head butting and fighting as blows to the head can easily be fatal. Some anthropologists believe skulls got thicker about 1.6 to 1.8 million years ago when erectus developed clubs as weapons, resulting in more cracked skulls. Denser bones (and less fat) make Africans less buoyant and less capable swimmers, but reduce their susceptibility to osteoporosis.

      The long, narrow skull of the Africans (dolichocephalic) loses heat the fastest and the more spherical skull of the Asians (brachycephalic) better retains heat. Comparing black, white, and Northeast Asian (Mongol) skulls, the black skull is more simian as it is long and narrow. The white and Mongol skulls are rounder and about the same size, but the cheek bones flair out more on the Mongol skull. There is a correlation of 0.37 between cranial capacity and the cephalic index, i.e., the long, narrow skulls of Africans have a smaller cranial capacity.

      The African skulls are very different from the skulls of all the other populations, even the Australian aborigines. The Black skull is smaller, with less space in the forehead, but proportionately more at the back.

      The difference between Eurasians and Africans in their nasal spines is dramatic. The anterior nasal spine is a small bone that extends outward from the middle of the base of the nasal cavity; it supports a nose that protrudes. The nasal spine is prominent in Caucasians, less so in Asians and small or absent in Africans. The race of a skull can be determined by placing a pen across the base of the nasal cavity. If the pen is held in place by the nasal spine, the skull is Caucasian; if it rolls off, the skull is African; chimpanzees and gorillas also lack a true anterior nasal spine.

      Simian prognathism (a protruding jaw with a recessed nose) is a very primitive trait that is characteristic of apes. A jutting jaw is needed if the teeth are large, plus it is an advantage in fighting as it permits a bigger bite and makes the eyes less vulnerable.

      Prognathism, the absence of “facial flatness” can be measured by means of the facial angle, the slope of the face from the forehead to the jaws. The facial angle is 70° for the “Black” (i.e., Congoids); H. habilis and H. erectus also have a facial angle of about 70°. An angle of 60° has been given for the Hottentots and Bushmen, and 66.6° for the Australian aborigines below the nose. Orangutans have a facial angle of 58°. A facial angle of 100° as the epitome of beauty. Africans have “remarkable prognathism.”

      A protruding jaw is usually associated with a sloping forehead which indicates a smaller prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain that handles planning, inhibition, and self control. Thus, the absence of prognathism is seen as less bestial and an indication of higher intelligence.

      In Eurasians, the upper teeth usually overlap the lower incisors, but in Africans the upper incisors are mounted in the jaw at an angle and project forward so that they meet the lower at an angle. The gorilla’s teeth meet at an even greater angle. African teeth are more primitive than Eurasian teeth and there are many other differences in their structures.

      A larger diameter pelvis will be selected for if baby head size, and therefore brain size, increases. Africans, with the smallest skulls, also have the smallest pelvis and give birth more easily. Pelvic measurements can be used not only to distinguish males from females, but even American white males from American black males, with about 75% accuracy.

      The sacral index is the breadth of the sacrum (the five fused vertebrae that are connected to the pelvis) as a percentage of its length. Walking upright increased the sacral index, enabling the sacrum to better support the internal organs, so a low sacral index is more primitive and a high sacral index is more modern. As usual, Blacks are closest to the apes. Note that the Blacks and the Andamenese are close together, especially for the females. The hips of blacks are also narrower, which makes walking and running more efficient for them. Overall Europeans have the highest sexual dimorphism, even before birth, and Asians the lowest.

      Vertebrae can also be used to help determine race. A “simian notch,” a much narrower second sacral vertebra, that is much narrower laterally than the first or third vertebrae, is characteristic of pongids [apes] and is frequent in Africans, among whom it appears to be a primary character.

      The heel bone projects more in Africans and differs in length, breadth, shape, and position, giving Africans a greater ability to sprint and jump. This is one reason why Africans excel in sports that require jumping. African feet are flatter and there is more separation between the first and second toes.

      Blacks have arms which are longer, relative to body height, than those of Whites. This feature, together with their much thicker cranial bones, gives Black athletes an advantage over Whites. The skeletal and muscular peculiarities of Blacks’ lower limbs have given them considerable success as sprinters, but have left them relative undistinguished as distance runners.

      The hair of a Black is black, crispy, and “woolly” in texture, it is flat and elliptical with no central canal or duct like the hair of Whites.

      The nose is thick, broad and flat, often turned up nostrils exposing the red inner lining of the mucous membrane similar to an ape.

      The arms and legs of the Black are relatively longer than the White. The humerus is shorter and the forearm longer thereby approximating the simian form.

      The eyes are prominent, iris black and the orbits large. The eye often has a yellowish sclerotic coat over it like that of a gorilla.

      The Black has a shorter trunk the cross-section of the chest is more circular than Whites. The pelvis is narrower and longer as it is in an ape.

      The mouth is wide with very thick, large and protruding lips.

      Black skin has a thick superficial layer which resists scratching and impedes the penetration of germs.

      The Black has a larger and shorter neck akin to that of anthropoids.

      The cranial sutures are more simple than in the white type and close together earlier.

      The ears of Blacks are roundish, rather small, standing somewhat high and detached thus approaching the simian form.

      The Black is more powerfully developed from the pelvis down and the White more powerfully developed in the chest.

      The jaw is larger and stronger and protrudes outward which, along with lower retreating forehead, gives a facial angle of 68 to 70 degrees as opposed to a facial angle of 80 to 82 degrees for Whites.

      The hands and fingers are proportionally narrower and longer. The wrist and ankles are shorter and more robust.

      The frontal and paricial bones of the cranium are less excavated and less capacious. The skull is thicker especially on the sides.

      The brain of the Black on the average is 9% smaller than Whites.

      The teeth are larger and are wider apart than in the White race.

      The three curvatures of the spine are less pronounced in the Black than in the White and thus more characteristic of an ape.

      The femur of the Black is less oblique, the tibia (shin bone) more curved and bent forward, the calf of the leg high and but little developed.

      The heel is broad and projecting, the foot long and broad but slightly arched causing flat soles, the great toe is shorter than in the White.

      The two bones proper of the nose are occasionally united, as in apes.

      Genetic distance is a measure of the genetic divergence between species or between populations within a species. Populations with many similar genes have small genetic distances. This indicates that they are closely related and have a recent common ancestor.

      Blacks have a genetic distance of 0.23 from Whites and Asians, but only 0.17 from Erectus. That means Blacks are more closely related to archaic hominids than to modern man.

      This is intuitive because we understand that humans evolved from Blacks in Africa.

      For comparison, the genetic distance between Blacks and modern man is greater than the genetic distance between the common chimpanzee and the bonobo (0.103, or half the Black-White distance) and between Gorilla gorilla and the Gorilla beringei (0.04, or 1/6 the Black/White distance) which are classified as separate species.

      So to be consistent and objective with taxonomic classification systems Blacks and Whites should be classified into separate species, or at least into different subspecies.

      The genetic distance between the races of man is also much greater than that between the breeds of dog, and anyone who has experience with dogs knows what a huge difference breed makes, not only in physical appearance but also in behavior and intelligence.

      Blacks are the only race with no DNA from the large-brain Neanderthal (Blacks have 2% archaic admixture). Whites are hybridized with Neanderthal, and Asians have both Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA.

      Modern man has on average 5% Neanderthal DNA, therefore he would be an F4 (4th filial generation from full purebred Neanderthal). That is about the same as most claiming Cherokee ancestors today.

      It is equivalent to having one Neanderthal great-great-great-grandparent. Blacks also coexisted and interbred with archaic hominids (heidelbergensis) for longer than those who left Africa.

      Blacks also the only race without the derived form of MCPH1 microcephalin called haplogroup D which produces increased brain volume.

  • Charles Gallagher

    I am proud to have neanderthal dna.

  • Max X kinght

    are Asians closer to white people

    • bobbyjacabson

      NO, they aren’t

      • Max X kinght

        yes they are

    • Donald J. Mouse

      Yes, they are, but they retain some of the traits of African heritage; notably the epicanthic folds or their eyelids and higher cheekbones..

  • Left Anti PC

    The key is what those 20% extra genes are. What do they do in our life?

  • Donald J. Mouse

    How could there have been Neanderthals left to interbreed with Asians a second time?
    ————————————————
    Ice. If the northern populations HAD TO move due to an exceedingly cold Artic conditions forcing animal and Neander pops south, then mixing could have occurred. Not only that, but some Neander pop could have frozen to death, decimating their numbers leading to their extinction.

    It’s just common sense.

  • 42tribes

    Egypt lost the ability to build their better Pyramids before 2000 BC. By the time they rebounded there wasnt enough ground water for them to function as intended. After that they faced nonstop invasions. The pyramid era was a time of peace. Its documented what happened to Africa. Egypt, Kerma, Kush, Rome, Greece, Luongo, Mali, Ghana, Zembabwe, Carthage, India, Axum, Kanem–Bornu, Tichitt, Songhay, and China all had the same engine. It was their temples. The Abrahamic religions slowly removed science from their temples. Happened in Europe too. Industry was soon to follow. The only way to thrive without industry is in a state of constant war with you winning more than you loose. Gun powder was magic to Egyptians, magic bombs to Persians, and a light show to the Chinese. Europe was already in a constant state of war so for them it was a weapon.

    The pyramids thing is not a myth. The Egyptians depicted themselves next to Pyramid bricks. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DDdyrB-UMAI6Toa.jpg
    The dark skin and afro thing keeps them in museums where cameras are not allowed.

  • Donald J. Mouse

    Reading below…whew!..it took over an hour and a half to absorb the material…. For the record, Rob seems to have a better grasp on this meme. Interesting results as he has demonstrated that there WERE actual scientific methods employed….One thing that is omitted from this rather obscure study is the origins of Caucasians. (some prefer (white). But the ‘white’ race seem to appear out of nowhere. These were ‘devoid of color’- pure bleached white. In other words, ‘white people’ are rather a ‘new’ adaptation to the homo series.

    My opinion is that no Caucasian peoples ‘evolved’; from Arica. There are no ‘white-skinned’ Africanis sub-types, other than some anomalous skin conditions known as Albinism, which in Nigeria for example it’s 20 in 100,000. One of the highest rates in the world……Did an Albino couple migrate out of Africa some 100K years ago and start the ‘white’ race in Europe?….That’s a stretch. No matter how much you dilute ‘black’, it will never be ‘white’.

    ALL studies show that the ‘first’ instances of Caucasians occurred in Northern Iraq, some 20,000 years ago and the first symbols, (marked tokens for exchange) occurred among these people some 9000 years ago. At about 4000 ya, earliest ‘writings’ occurred as pictographs and finally developed into symbols that represent sounds; then later, about 3500BCE it became stylized into what we now know as Cuneiform writings in clay. The ancient Hebrew came from these people.

    No writing prior to these periods occurred in any other part of the world, especially in Africa, until the Caucasians introduced it to them. (Sumerians > Egyptians). These signs of the Sumerians were adopted by the East Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia and Akkadian became the first Semitic language and would be used by the Babylonians and Assyrians as it’s use spread like wildfire among civilized peoples.

    During this time period, (Egypt, where picture writing had developed sometime near the end of the 4th millennium BCE), adaptive use gave us our first forms of an alphabet. Still nothing but primitive cave drawings ever occurred in black Africa.

    So, indeed, where DID Neanderthals come from? I contend that they never were Caucasian or ‘white-skinned’ but were of a derived ‘color’ of genetic-inspired breeding among certain environmental groups that lived in colder climes. Grayish-yellow?… but certainly not ‘pure white’.
    Neanderthals go back almost 400K ya..and 200K ya they scattered from Gibraltar to Asia and finally disappeared about 40K ya…a product of evolution from the most primitive adaptations of the genus homo from originations in S. Africa near Lk Victoria. ALL humans today, (we are all a mixed species), and can trace our earthly mother through MtDNA to this area in Africa. Neanderthals were forerunners of the Arabic-speaking East Semitic peoples of the Levant.

    Caucasians for the most part, retained genealogical DNA which is dominate when breeding among the same species, but which loses it’s characteristics among other mixed peoples of color. In Europe for instance, it retains the highest genetic markers because of the breeding amongst the same Geno-type. Male>female
    white>white = offspring 98% Caucasian of ancestral mixing avg IQ 100
    white>Asian = offspring 92% Caucasian avg IQ 100+
    white>Amer-hispanic = offspring 84% Caucasian avg IQ 90
    white>African = offspring 42% Caucasian as black is dominate. avg IQ 86

    So, IMO, there are no ‘pure races’ to an extent until you reach into Asia (China) 99%…. and in Africa, where 99% of generally ALL Negroid peoples test for purity and in the US, 92% of all African descendants are pure blood. Meaning, the Negroid individual will ALWAYS be black and fall into the characteristics of Robs analysis….

    If you want your offspring to be smart…be a Caucasian man and marry a Chinese woman. : – )