For the most part, plants appear to be harmless and passive organisms at the lowest rung of the food chain. However, many plants have developed sophisticated defense systems that include chemical signaling, physical fortifications, and deterrents that can protect them from small pests and large herbivores alike. Valentin Hammoudi, a PhD student specializing in plant research, explains in this Ted Ed segment the many ways plants arm themselves in the battle for survival.
[Editor’s Note: Valentin Hammoudi is a PhD student in molecular biology at the University of Amsterdam, and focuses his research on cellular plant processes.]
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