Ashkenazi Jewish women descended mostly from Italian converts, new study asserts

Are most modern Jews primarily of European or Middle and Near Eastern ancestry? That controversial subject—at the heart of the debate over the historical ‘right of return’ claimed by many religious Jews—is back in the headlines with the release of a massive new study published in Nature Communications challenging some established views of the origins of European Jewry.

The total Ashkenazi population is estimated at around 8 million people. The estimated world Jewish population is about 13 million.

Before the advent of advanced DNA research, it had been thought by some historians that European Jewry traced to the largely pagan population of ancient Khazaria in the Caucuses, whose leadership was believed to have converted to Judaism beginning around 700 AD. But that theory—known as the Khazarian hypothesis—has been largely discredited by DNA research. One geneticist, Eran Elhaik, has recently attempted to revive the theory, but his research has been sharply challenged.

A groundbreaking paper published in 2000 by Harry Ostrer, a professor of genetics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and University of Arizona geneticist Michael Hammer showed that most modern Jews are descended on their male side from a core population of approximately 20,000 Jews who migrated from Italy over the first millennium and eventually settled in Eastern Europe.

“All European [Ashkenazi] Jews seem connected on the order of fourth or fifth cousins,” Ostrer has said.

Known as the so-called “Rhineland hypothesis,” the consensus research holds that most Ashkenazi Jews, as well as many Jews tracing their lineage to Italy, North Africa, Iraq, Iran, Kurdish regions and Yemen, share common paternal haplotypes also found among many Arabs from Palestine, Lebanon and Syria. Only a small percentage of the Y-DNA of Ashkenazi Jews—less than 25 percent—originated outside of the Near East, presumably as converts.

This historical and genetic mosaic has provided support for the controversial concept of a “Jewish people.” The Law of Return, the Israeli law that established the right of Jews around the world to settle in Israel and which remains in force today, was a central tenet of Zionism. It is invoked by some religious Jews to support territorial claims (even though, based on this research, many Arabs, including Palestinians, where therefore also have a genetic ‘right of return’).

But what about the female lineage? That history is more obscure and contentiously debated. Duke University’s David Goldstein and Mark Thomas of the Center for Genetic Anthropology in London reported in 2002 that much of the mitochondrial DNA of women in Jewish communities around the world that they examined did not seem to be of Middle or Near Eastern origin, and indeed each community had its own genetic pattern. This suggested that migrating Jewish men might have taken on local wives, who converted to Judaism. The estimates of the percentage of Ashkenazi women of European image was probably more than 50 percent, they estimated, but the data was too murky to come up with a firm estimate.

But a subsequent and more extensive study in 2006 by a team based at Technion and Rambam Medical Center in Haifa suggested that Ashkenazi women—40 percent or more—may indeed have had ancient Near and Middle Eastern roots, and may have accompanied their husbands as part of families migrating together.

The new study published in Nature Communications aligns itself more closely with the 2002 hypothesis, although there are differences. Professor Martin Richards, who heads the University of Huddersfield’s Archaeogenetics Research Group (and who participated in the 2002 study), and colleagues sequenced 74 mitochondrial genomes and analyzed more than 3,500 mitochondrial genomes – far more data than the 2006 survey, which reviewed only a short length of the mitochondrial DNA, containing just 1,000 or so of its 16,600 DNA units, in all their subjects.

Richards and his team claim that maternal lineages did not originate in the Near or Middle East or the Khazarian Caucasus but rather, for the most part, within Mediterranean Europe. Another twist in the findings: Jewish women may have been assimilated in Europe as far back as 2,000 years ago—earlier than most other studies have projected. The researchers believe the DNA could trace back to the early Roman Empire, when as much as 10 percent of the population practiced Judaism, many of them converts. Overall, they claim, at least 80 percent of Ashkenazi maternal ancestry comes from women indigenous to Europe while 8 percent originated in the Near East, with the rest uncertain.

According to Nicholas Wade of the New York Times, Doron Behar, one of the key authors of the 2006 analysis, said he disagreed with the conclusions, but has provided no detailed critique as yet.

Wade also talked to David Goldstein, who said he believed the estimate that 80 percent of Ashkenazi Jewry originated in Europe was too high considering the unpredictability of mitochondrial DNA data.

The new research underscores an emerging consensus that wandering Jewish men, from the Near East, established a mosaic of small Jewish communities—first in Italy and then scattered throughout Europe, often taking on local gentile wives and raising their children as Jews.

Jon Entine, executive director of the Genetic Literacy Project, is a senior fellow at the Center for Health & Risk Communication and STATS (Statistical Assessment Service) at George Mason University.

Additional Resource:

Abraham’s Children: Race, Identity and the DNA of the Chosen People, Jon Entine

669 thoughts on “Ashkenazi Jewish women descended mostly from Italian converts, new study asserts”

    • Good question. From a genetic perspective, Sephardim are not as distinct a group, as there has been more intermarriage with non Jews over the centuries…so the data is harder to isolate. This particular study suggests that the common markers for Ashkenazi women are from the Near East and from Roman Jews…those populations preceded the founding of what became Sephardic Jewry. Many of these same markers are in Sephardic Jews as well.

      • I am one of the Ashkenazi Jews(100%) and I agree with this research,as we are different from Sephardic mentally and visually. We are more close to Italian or Roman people.
        It is absolutely incredible, how we are survive against assimilation !!! Believe me it was mostly from mother’s side – not to assimilate. Family pressure on kids to choose suppose from Ashkenazi Jews transferred with blood. It is even more important than keeping traditions.
        You can eat what you want , you can dress up how you want, we will prefer , if you remember at least some of Jewish Holidays(no pressure), but you must to marry to same, as you are. You are growing up with it and just believe in you hard that you will be more happy with suppose from same kind, as you are. The funny thing that I became same, as I became a mother…
        It doesn’t matter how many researches will be done in the world , we are here, we are existing, we are surviving and it is making us unique…..

          • what does that mean Kavod? Why is it you can’t stand to be around them? Thier people just like you and myself. Am I missing something?

        • I was just informed I was a Ashkenazi
          Jewish.. I’m getting ready to turn 62 yrs and I had no clue of this until a week ago.. I would love to learn more. Is there a place I can find out about my heritage? My e mail address is [email protected] I read there is 8 to 10, 000 left. Does that mean we are all related?

        • I think it’s a mistake. The link to Italians goes back much much further. My dad was Italian and his line started out in Sumer. If I had talent as a writer, I would write about how Abraham was the neighbor of the people that would become the Italians and Greeks back in Sumer the first city.

        • I think the obverse, actually many Italians and Iberians are closer to Israelites and Jews. There are many supposedly Chatholic communities of Jews in those countries that are returning to the Torah.

  1. Hitler didnt seem to mind where a “Jew” came from, going after even those with only one Jewish grandparent. In this aim, he had a deep complicity and working relationship with the leader of the Muslims in Palestine (the region in question where no Jews apparently ever came from), known as the Mufti of Jerusalem, who was also a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood.

    Now if we didn’t come from Palestine, why does my European Jewish granddaddy bear a certain resemblance to this Mufti?!!! And why do I get mistakenly asked if I am Arab every time I choose to grow a beard? :)

    • First, this study is contested by others. If it is accurate, it refers only to Ashkenazi women (again, other scientists dispute these findings, say the data suggests that 50% or more of Ashkenazi Jewish women do have Near East ancestry). No one that I know of disputes that most Jewish men–upwards of 75%–have Near East ancestral roots. So that could explain your Semitic looks!

        • Errata:

          “The total Ashkenazi population is estimated at around 8 million people. The estimated world Jewish population is about 13 million.”

          That is an old census figure. I have estimated at least 20 million Jews worldwide. The total, albeit sourced from Wikipedia, is somewhere between 14 to 18 million. Notice that the estimates tend to accrue on the low side:

          That number is neither including Crypto-Jews of Europe or the Americas, nor Lost Tribes like the Amhara or Nilotic Israelites in Africa, let alone Asia’s Kurds or Pashtun.

          • According to “The Jewish Chronicle”, 29 June, the Israeli JPPI says the number of Jews in the world is almost the same as it was “before the Holocaust”. 16.5 million then, and 14.2 million now, with a further 2.3 milion identifying as “partially Jewish”. 6.1 million in Israel and 5.7 million in America. It says six million were “murdered” by the Nazis, though the exactitude of this death-toll is disputed by serious historians, not only “deniers”, the Auschwitz mortality figure having been reduced from the Soviet figure used at Nuremberg.

          • Those are old census numbers. If you are in a major city you may look around and see how huge the Jewish populations are, not including peoples with Jewish ancestry because of the Torah belief. Even Wikipedia indicates the lowball figure of 8.5 million American Jews.

          • Do you happen to know specifically (1) how accurate were the numbers of Jews in pre-war Europe reportedly supplied at Wannsee, and (2) the probable correct number of “Holocaust Survivors” in post-war Europe?

        • The “Law of Return” is not consistent. Proving that Jewish scholars can’t even come to an agreement on what a Jew is.

          Case in point. Decades ago a baby with Jewish parents was dropped off to a Christian family during the reign of Hitler. The family then raised the baby Catholic.

          The baby became a priest into adulthood. When he was informed of his past he decided to apply for Israeli citizenship and was denied! The Israeli Supreme Court declared he was not a Jew. The name of the priest escapes me, but this is one of the most widely known examples. There have been many more incidents of people with Jewish parents that became Christians are were denied the “Law of Return”.

      • That’s a ridiculous comparison; the Nazis used it to make sure they could murder as many Jews as possible, Israel uses it to make sure everyone (whether they are Jewish or just descended from a Jew) is safe from antisemitism.

          • Well, they got six million of us, but I guess that’s ok if for some reason, like needing that company for something, they left a few alive for the time being…and oh, let some go in exchange for bribes of course, let’s not forget that. As long as they just wanted to kill most of us….

            I’m sure you have a people of your own whose genetic purity could enthral you just as much.

          • They love to write good Hollywood stories , and there wasnt even thst many Jews in all of Europe back . Around half a million jews were killed not 6 billion I mean million.

          • Because it served their purpose. Why is it too hard to understand that ruthless people will use whomever they can, and then dispose of them. We see it everyday in lesser degrees.

          • They didn’t kill every Jew because they didn’t have enough time to finish their murderous industrial genocide as they lost the ******* War you racist piece of Kharrah.

          • Is it true that no autopsy report carried out on the thousands of victims of the Nazis has confirmed that death was from lethal gas.

    • The answer is simple the vast majority of Ashkenazim look Semitic and are Semites. Ashkenazim, Sephardim & Mizrahim all originated from the land of Israel. To be precise Judea. After the destruction of the 2nd temple 70AD and again after the Bar-Kokhba revolt against Rome the great Jewish dispersion took place, Jews were dispersed all over the Roman Empire, including the Rhineland, Gaul, Spain and later they spread further eastwards into Poland and Russia. However the overwhelming majority of these Jews from the Rhineland, France to Poland and Russia etc all looked semitic even though they were separated from their brethren who lived in the middle east, they still shared the same bloodlines which they didn’t share with their non jewish countrymen either in the Arab and Islamic world or in europe. This is the reason why people can mistake you for an Arab

    • I am African-American, and find out I have Ashkenazi blood line. I am in my sixties and been practicing Judaism all my life. I don’t know who in my family was Jewish; but I do know this. No matter how much Jewish blood I have, people will always tell me I am not Jewish; even though I am a citizen of Israel. So I say who cares what your blood line is. Just be Jewish.

      • You have no “Jewish blood”! There is no Jewish or Muslim or Christian blood.

        Here is a sample of what your DNA looks like if you are Ashkenazi.
        Alan Dershowitz DNA
        98. 5% Ashkenazi
        0.4% Southern European
        0.1% Balkan
        0.9% Broadly European
        0.1% East Asian
        99.9% European
        0.0% Middle Eastern
        Source: PBS

    • I could be wrong, but I don’t think your “granddaddy” is an adequate sample for a peer-reviewed DNA study, which is what is in question here. The question really is, do white people from Europe have the right to seize the land of Arab people in the middle east due to a historical wrong committed against the first group? I’d say absolutely not, especially given the fact that there are literally thousands of groups with a better claim to land who aren’t going to see THEIR land returned (the hundreds of indigenous groups of the Americas is the clearest example, and quite parallel, since that genocide is the worst genocide in recorded history).

      • uh uh I think the amount of africans killed from the fall of the great black kingdoms of old up to today in the gulags of Amerikkka is a greater genocide in terms of numbers, but the evil added to the Indian Genocide by whites of still keeping them coralled in reservations and destroying them with the bottle (a practice that was perfected in Africa before the Europeans even knew about the New world

        • Hey, I agree that the Indians got a really RAW deal but to state that they are still “keeping them corralled in reservations and destroying them with the bottle” is utter nonsense. They can leave those reservations at any time and WHO is holding them down forcing them to drink that liquor? Stop your white bashing simply because you have a hard-on for whites!

          • Leave the reservation and go where? Washington maybe and while they at it they can attempt to establish a Indian nation ya think in DC.

            Yes they need to Indian up and get off that boozr.

            Africans can help in this orocess because after europeans bum rushed the continent with the same fork tongued diplomacy they quickly removed the Chief/King by killing, jailing etc and then even faster brought in the booze for the African sheeple who were now headless and rudderless. Its all documented, usually by thr fair european hand.

            This ancient process is easily mothballed and snowballed when needed Once a power can maintain hegemony its easy to mess with all types of sociaties. Ever wondered why there is a iquor store on nearly every corner where African Americans abide Not qiite the same scenario in your euro-amerikkkan neighborhoods.

          • Slavery went on in Africa for a 1,000 yrs before a white man ever stepped foot on that continent. And the white man didn’t invade Africa they were invited by tribal leaders who sold off their own people (slaves).

          • Slavery was a world wide concept back in the day. However The Transatlantic Slave Trade was of a very very different nature. The folllowing highlights the subtle truths that as usual have been interpretated by european brains full of leprotic madness they rely on to tell African peoples they sold themselves.

            Afonso, King of the Congo 1509 to late 1542 or 1543
            Although Afonso was outspokenly opposed to slavery and initially fought
            the Portuguese demand for human beings, he eventually relented in order
            to sustain the economy of the Kongo. Initially Afonso sent war captives
            and criminals to be sold as slaves to the Portuguese. Eventually
            Portuguese demand for slaves exceeded the country’s potential supply
            prompting their search for slaves from neighboring regions.[6]

          • You’re correct in that slavery has been in existence sine the beginning of time. Blacks don’t have a monopoly on being slaves and whites don’t have a monopoly on being masters. In addition, slavery had nothing to do with “race” in the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade.

            Blacks were enslaved by their own people in Africa. Tribal leaders would capture and conquer other black tribes.

            It was white Christians who fought to abolish slavery. 100 yrs after the West abolished slavery the Arab slave trade went on just as strong as before. In fact, the Arabs would cut the genitals off the black males so they couldn’t breed. A good reason you don’t see many blacks in the Arab world.

            Slavery still goes on in black Africa today.

            The Arab slave trade was much more brutal and lasted much longer than the Trans slave trade.

            Even black history professors acknowledge the black slavery in Africa. Whites didn’t invade Africa. They couldn’t!! They had no clue of how to navigate through the jungle. They had no immune system to fight off different disease. The black Africans were willingly sold off to Europeans in exchange for goods by black tribal leaders.

            Those are the facts.

    • The Grand Mufti ordered that Muslims and Christians MUST live in mutual peace and respect. Hitler needed the Mufti to explain to him who the real jews were because the word were they were black. So your assertian that he colluded with Hitler..long a canard by so called or self styled jews is utter crap

    • Actually, Germans with 1 Jewish grandparent had full citizenship rights and duties. The only major restriction was they could only fight in the Wehrmacht and could not join the SS.

    • You did not come from Palestine. I am Middle Eastern and I see your European features from a mile away! You came after our land, our food, our music, our dance, our clothing, our art, our camel and now you say you look like US? Why do you of all Europeans look like us. You need to look into the mirror and smile at that European reflected on that mirror..


      “Now if we didn’t come from Palestine, why does my European Jewish granddaddy bear a certain resemblance to this Mufti?!!!”

      I am Middle Eastern and you are a wannabe! This is the day of DNA where it has been confirmed that all Ashkenazi have on average 96% Ashkenazi DNA.

      “And why do I get mistakenly asked if I am Arab every time I choose to grow a beard? ”

      And why would anyone at 0% ancestry to the region as verified by DNA resemble the people of the region? Of all the lands on earth where people of color live, you just happen to match the people of the Middle East? Delusion.

      • Very low informational quality. Anyone can see you are a propagandist. Good luck.

        1. Palestinians were Jews in the 1930s. The Palestine Post was Jewish. The Romans named it after the Jooos! Only in the 60s was there INVENTED the Pal nation. And didnt want the West Bank. They wanted to toss Jews out of Tel Aviv and Haifa. Supremacists.
        2. There are a majority of brown Jews in Israel! They were 1million expelled by Arab countries in the 1950s. Even black Jews Israel has. (How are blacks treated by Arabs?).
        3. Your maps have been shown to be inaccurate. Much of the green was public land, not Arab. And private Arabs lands were paid for. They will kill you today if you sell your land to a Jew, cos of their rejectionism and supremacism. It is Israel who attracted workers from neighbouring countries and gave them the best std of living of any Arab. And Israel who had 77% of their mandate land taken away and given to the Hashemites who weren’t even from there. But Jewish archaelogical sites are all over.

        Can you not even do basic research? You waste time and cause more tragedy.

        I would recommend researching these questions on well referenced sites like elderofziyon

        • I wonder why Hitler never mentioned the word “Palestine”?

          September 16, 1919 – Hitler’s first known writing addressing Jewry.

          Dear Herr Gemlich,

          If the threat with which Jewry faces our people has given rise to undeniable hostility on the part of a large section of our people, the cause of this hostility must be sought in the clear recognition that Jewry as such is deliberately or unwittingly having a pernicious effect on our nation, but mostly in personal intercourse, in the poor impression the Jew makes as an individual. As a result, antisemitism far too readily assumes a purely emotional character. But this is not the correct response. Antisemitism as a political movement may not and cannot be molded by emotional factors but only by recognition of the facts. Now the facts are these:

          To begin with, the Jews are unquestionably a race, not a religious community. The Jew himself never describes himself as a Jewish German, a Jewish Pole or a Jewish American, but always as a German, Polish or American Jew. Jews have never adopted more than the language of the foreign nations in whose midst they live. A German who is forced to make use of the French language in France, Italian in Italy, Chinese in China does not thereby become a Frenchman, Italian, or Chinaman, nor can we call a Jew who happens to live amongst us and who is therefore forced to use the German language, a German. Neither does the Mosaic faith, however great its importance for the preservation of that race, be the sole criterion for deciding who is a Jew and who is not. There is hardly a race in the world whose members all belong to a single religion.

          Through inbreeding for thousands of years, often in very small circles, the Jew has been able to preserve his race and his racial characteristics much more successfully than most of the numerous people among whom he has lived. As a result there lives amongst us a non-German, alien race, unwilling and indeed unable to shed its racial characteristics, its particular feelings, thoughts and ambitions and nevertheless enjoying the same political rights as we ourselves do. And since even the Jew‘s feelings are limited to the purely material realm, his thoughts and ambitions are bound to be so even more strongly. Their dance around the golden calf becomes a ruthless struggle for all the possessions that we feel deep down are not the highest and not the only ones worth striving for on this earth.

          The value of an individual is no longer determined by his character or by the significance of his achievements for the community, but solely by the size of his fortune, his wealth.

          The greatness of a nation is no longer measured by the sum of its moral and spiritual resources, but only by the wealth of its material possessions.

          All this results in that mental attitude and that quest for money and the power to protect it which allow the Jew to become so unscrupulous in his choice of means, so merciless in their use of his own ends. In autocratic states he cringes before the ‘majesty’ of the princes and misuses their favors to become a leech on their people.

          In democracies he vies for the favor of the masses, cringes before ‘the majesty of the people’, but only recognizes the majesty of money.

          He saps the prince’s character with Byzantine flattery; national pride and the strength of the nation with ridicule and shameless seduction to vice. His method of battle is that public opinion which is never expressed in the press but which is nonetheless manages and falsified by it. His power is the power of the money, which multiplies in his hands effortlessly and endlessly through interest, and with which he imposes a yoke upon the nation that is the more pernicious in that its glitter disguises its ultimately tragic consequences. Everything that makes the people strive for higher goals, be it religion, socialism, or democracy, is to the Jew merely a means to an end, the way to satisfy his greed and thirst for power.

          The results of his works is racial tuberculosis of the nation.

          And this has the following consequences: purely emotional antisemitism finds its final expression in the form of pogroms. Rational antisemitism, by contrast, must lead to a systematic and legal struggle against, and eradication of, the privileges the Jews enjoy over the other foreigners living among us (Alien Laws). Its final objective, however, must be the total removal of all Jews from our midst. Both objectives can only be achieved by a government of national strength and not one of national impotence.

          The German Republic owes its birth not the united national will of our people, but to the underhand exploitation of a series of circumstances that, taken together, express themselves in a deep, universal dissatisfaction. These circumstances, however, arose independently of the political structure and are at work even today. Indeed, more so than ever before. Hence, a large part of our people recognizes that changing the structure of the state cannot in itself improve our position, but that this can only be achieved by the rebirth of the nation’s moral and spiritual forces.

          And this rebirth cannot be prepared by the leadership of an irresponsibly majority influence by party dogmas or by the internationalist catch-phrases and slogans of an irresponsible press, but only by determined acts on the part of nationally minded leadership with an inner sense of responsibility.

          This very fact serves to deprive the Republic of the inner support of the spiritual forces any nation needs very badly. Hence the present leaders of the nation are forced to seek support from those who alone have benefited and continue to benefit from changing the form of the German state, and who for that very reason become the driving force of the Revolution — the Jews. Disregarding the Jewish threat, which is undoubtedly recognized even by today’s leaders (as various statement from prominent personalities reveal), these men are forced to accept Jewish favors to their private advantage and to repay these favors. And the repayment does not merely involve satisfying every possible Jewish demand, but above all preventing the struggle of the betrayed people against its defrauders, by sabotaging the antisemitic movement.

          Yours truly,

          Adolf Hitler

          The Adolf Hitler Historical Museum


            1 To begin with, the Jews are unquestionably a race, not a religious community. Does it mean that Hitler was unaware that there were Asian, Arab, African, Latin Jews? It is true that 90% or more of world Jewry is European.

            2 There is hardly a race in the world whose members all belong to a single religion. Again, Hitler must not have that there were Jews of many races.

            3 Through inbreeding for thousands of years, often in very small circles, the Jew has been able to preserve his race and his racial characteristics DNA has confirmed that the Ashkenazi are 99.9% European which makes them one of the purest and whitest of any European groups.

            4 As a result there lives amongst us a non-German, alien race, unwilling and indeed unable to shed its racial characteristics, Again, DNA has confirmed that the Ashkenazi are of European race at 99.9% and at 0% Middle Eastern.

        • How the Arab Jews left: It lists how many Arab Jews were still in their own Arab countries in 1948, 1958, 1968, 1978. The Arab Jews were not expelled but left on their own. What kind of “expulsion” takes
          3-decades? On the other hand, the Ashkenazi expelled 900,000 Palestinians in a matter of a few months in 1948.

          Total………… 851,000…469,060….69,600..31,790

          The Arab Jews were aware that the Jews of Lithuania, Poland, Russia … were European and came for economic reasons.

        • By the time the stampede had begun by European Jewry to Palestine in 1882, Jewish land ownership was less than 0.1% of Palestine. By 1947, all that the Europeans managed to buy was 6.6% of Palestine and the rest they stole.

          Jewish land ownership in Palestine of total area of 26,323,000 dunums

          1882 …….. 22,500 …… 0.1%
          1900 ……. 218,000 …… 0.8%
          1914 ……. 418,000 …… 1.6%
          1927 ……. 865,000 …… 3.2%
          1936 ….. 1,231,000 ……. 4.7%
          1945 ….. 1,588,365 ……. 6.%
          1947 ….. 1,734,000 ……. 6.6%

        • ” Your maps have been shown to be inaccurate. Much of the green was public ”

          Was it for the benefit of the Lithuanian, Hungarian, Russian, German Jews’ benefit?

        • “And Israel who had 77% of their mandate land taken away and given to the Hashemites ”

          You mean the Arabs took away the land of the Lithuanian, Hungarian, German, Russian Jews?

  2. How come the DNA says the Ashkenazi are 54% Greek and 21% Iranian, using the new Genochip 2.0, and the Greek DNA has the same percentages as the Tuscan. Would the mtDNA actually be Tuscan Italian, which actually is Bronze-age Greek, since old Etruscan/Tuscan language is similar to Greek spoken prior to 1,500 BCE? Why Italian rather than Greek, when the Italians marrying the Middle-Eastern men most likely were Greek speaking, with the majority of synagogues in ancient Rome being Greek speaking and only 23 Latin speaking? Any ideas? Thanks.

    • Here are a few samples of the Ashenazi DNA. They are the purest of the pure of any Europeans at a stunning level of 99.9% European. That is indeed as purebred at it gets.

      Tony Kushner DNA
      97.5% Ashkenazi
      0.1% Finnish
      0.1% Scandinavian
      2.2% Broadly European
      0.1% East Asian
      99.9% European
      0.0% Middle Eastern

      Rabbi Hammerman DNA
      97.2% Ashkenazi
      0.8% East European
      0.2% Southern European
      1.7% Broadly European
      0.1% Native American
      99.9% European
      0.0% Middle Eastern

      Joseph Cohen DNA
      96.2% Ashkenazi
      0.4% Eastern European
      0.1% N. European
      0.1% Southern European
      3.0% Broadly European
      0.1% East Asian
      0.1% Unassigned
      0.0% Middle East
      99.8% European
      0.0% Middle Eastern

      Alan Dershowitz DNA
      98. 5% Ashkenazi
      0.4% Southern European
      0.1% Balkan
      0.9% Broadly European
      0.1% East Asian
      99.9% European
      0.0% Middle Eastern

  3. 80% does not seem to be a rational or accurate estimate,I’ve read studies that have stated that a little more than half of Ashkenazi Jewish people do have levantine Mtdna from the near east…Why are they saying that it’s European and who came up with this supposed “conclusion”?

    • Kenneth, some geneticists dispute the conclusions by the Richards’ team. Talked with Martin, and he’s very confident that the maternal line of about 65-80% of today’s Ashkenazi Jews has ancient European roots. Others say it could be as low as 40%, but it is sizable regardless. I’m working on a mega story analyzing the claims and counter claims, but it won’t be out for a month or so. Stay tuned!!

  4. The problem here is that, the human genome is 99.9% identical between all humans, and that more variation is apparent in cellular process then racial indication. Syrians and Jewish DNA are more similar as they share a semetic background, Arabs are more Assyrian-Persian in nature, but they both share the same ancestor which is the Sumerian. The Sumerian is the common ancestor, but all humans originated in AFRICA 150,000 Years ago. And were all 99.9 similar, we should stop focusing on roots and racial identification and more on how we are all human. Not hes this type of jew, and hes this type of jew, and hes african and this guys arab. But hes a human being, and shes a human being, and I am a human being. JUST SAYING!!!

    • Studies of Arabian peninsula DNA, of people who have been there a long time, show a different story to yours. Iranian and Iraqi DNA are close to Levantine DNA (Syria, Palestinian, etc) while Arab peninsula DNA is distinct and closer to N. African. However it all depends WHICH DNA you are looking at, Y chromosome, MtDNA, or any given specific marker. People kept moving around and invading and leaving their DNA behind in bits and pieces. We’re all mongrels, and all DNA can tell us is which groups of people we’re likely to be more related to.

      And when you have to deal with all kinds of people suggesting you’re not really Jewish but a Khazarian simply because you have ancestors from Europe (as if all European Jews are Ashkenazi) you’d appreciate having the proof with which to say, Thanks for your ignorant opinion, but **** off now, because explaining that that’s not even how Judaism works just doesn’t seem to sink into their blood purity obsessed little left-wing racialist racist skulls.
      Obviously you have the luxury of not having who you are questioned daily, or perhaps you’ve bought into that whole self-hating white liberal deracinating shtick that insists that white people have no culture or distinction and only brown and black people can have cultures or be distinct and unique. You’re obviously a liberal, the fact that you are spending your time on dna sites for specific groups (obviously interested yourself, hypocrite) and then lecturing other people and telling them what to do and what to think makes that clear.
      Personally I find genetics fascinating, All the distinctions, and yet all the interrelationships. Like a magnificent cloth woven of multiple different colours. You go be colour-blind and see humanity as a big blob of undifferentiated communist grey if you want to. JUST SAYING!!!

      • Please stop conflating the actual left, with capitalists.

        We are one humanity, that shouldn’t present a problem to your land rights.

        I am of Ashkanazi ethnicity, but I know the difference between nationalism and religion. Who the hell questions you daily? What type of irritating stereotype are you?

        I know who I am, I don’t need anyone’s external validation. One humanity wouldn’t appear undifferentiated, to someone who knows how to judge character. It is your hyper nationalistic, and class obscurantist world-view that is sick.

        • Uh, I’m ANTI-Zionist, not Zionist, not Leftist, religious Jew who doesn’t look like what most people think a stereotypical Jew looks like. I didn’t realize that that itself now constituted an “irritating stereotype” How silly of me not to realise what a trope I am.

          I’m not the only Jew who hears this crap ad-nauseum from Liberals and Leftists, even when trying to avoid them. I was just accosted by one in my neighbourhood last week.

          Genetics, unlike people doesn’t lie, and doesn’t have any agenda. Jews and Palestinians both have roots there going back 50 000. A genetic argument for sole possession (dubious to start with) would favour neither group.

          • I hate Liberals far more than you, don’t conflate them with Leftists.

            The left is colorblind, liberals are color ‘conscious’, anyone who thinks they are leftwing and promoting race essentialism is NOT a leftist. When you call them leftists is builds their cred, stop promoting them, Liberals reject every single last value of the left.

            I know the hard right grabbed hold of a couple good talking points, doesn’t make them right-wing talking points. It just makes Liberals center-right hypocrites.

            O, You meant that when you discuss your religion they address you ethnically? If so, I apologize most sincerely. I misidentified you as a far-right ethnocentric nationalist. In stead of someone with religious conviction, I respect those who define Judaism as a religion.

            Your left sounds like the American ‘left’ Just neo-liberalism, and touchy feely bullshit?

          • I am right wing – authoritarian fyi – Obsession with the small genetic differences between racial classes of humans led to ubermensch and eugenics, this is not a path to go down specifically because it leads to hatred and destruction over the .01% differences in the human genome. I am proud of western culture and the European culture and feel it needs to be preserved as the liberal/communist agenda is destroying it. Culture is far more important than racial characteristics, and being a mixed european myself find it humorous that people actually think they are pure bloods. The Romans spread the races across the empire as slave/servants, and when the HUNS came they pushed all europe into a giant melting pot. While studying the variation of genes is fascinating my comment is simply warning of the dangers of classifying positive and negative traits of genetics. Most would argue that Nurture is far more important on a society than Nature so focusing on cultural differentiation would be far more realistic and eye opening.

          • European culture will not be preserved if the Europeans are replaced by Africans, Arabs and Asians.

          • If Europeans would stop bombing the homes of Africans, Arabs, Asians, perhaps they would prefer to stay home?

          • Not as simple as that.
            However, I have always thought that generally speaking European troops and bombs should not be in the Middle East, and Middle Eastern migrants and bombers should not be in Europe.

          • True, DNA does not lie! And DNA confirms the Ashkenazi ancestry to Poland, Lithuania, Hungary … at 99.9% and at 0% to Palestine. DNA confirms the ancestry of Palestinians at 90%+ to that region. And why would “Jews” share DNA with Palestinians anyway since they claim to be have descended from Abraham of UR-IRAQ, 1,000 miles away from Palestine. Listen: I am Middle Eastern and when I look at the Ashkenazi I am looking at George Bush or Hillary Clinton, very, very European.

            “Jews” and “Palestinians” are not mutually exclusive.

            Jews = Arabs, Europeans, Africans, Asians …
            Palestinians = Jews, Muslims, Christians, atheists …


      • My ancestors practiced Judaism in Eastern Europe(although all are atheists today), but as my DNA has revealed I am 99% European; I have no Palestinian/Israeli or Middle eastern blood whatsoever, my European roots go back to PREHISTORY, and I am 2% non-Jewish Italian, which I am not at all surprised about in that in the Roman Diaspora many Gentiles converted to Judaism. No offense, but as my DNA shows(typical for Ashkenazi), no, we were NEVER there(In Israel).

        • Maybe your ancestors were recent converts. or you did a cheap and unreliable test. That would be a very unusual result for most Ashkenazi Jews. A far more complex study than this in Columbia University shows Ashkenazi Jews to be approximately 50% Middle Eastern and 50 % European.

          • That’s a good point, Mr. Dafydd. I got my results through Perhaps the question is, what is European Jewish? Is there some sort of presupposition that Middle Eastern is built into this? Do most European Jews like myself show a Middle Eastern source?

          • Hi

            European Jewish is both Ashkenazi ( East/Central Europe ) and Sephardic , originating in Spain. The third group, the Italian jews, are also very close to the Ashkenazi, and have lived in Italy since 200BC. On the genetic level they are all very close.
            Yes, most European Jews show a Middle Eastern source, particularly from the paternal lines. The maternal lineages tend to be European.Many studies show the European line to be largely Italian or South European, even if they are East European Jews. with about 12% East European in addition

            The supposition that you mention that Middle Eastern should be built into this is the Biblical reference to the children of Abraham originating in the Middle East, and leaving the Levant after 70 AD. After 2000 years in Europe , one would expect to find early origins in the Levant followed by subsequent European admixture, , which is pretty much what has been found. European Jews are European/Middle Eastern hybrids.Interestingly, it is the maternal lines that are in general more European, which may cause the rabbis to rethink the idea that Jewishness comes from the mother. Biblically, tribal status always came from the father.Rabbis would rightly argue that Judaism was never based on race but faith, but strict laws of adherence did result in a distinct ethnicity.Perhaps the best way to describe the Israelites is a semitic race who became a nation, whom anyone could join if they embraced the God of Abraham.

          • Dear Mr. Dafydd,
            Well, I did source that Columbia University study, but I still have questions relating to their assertion that European Jews show an admixture of Middle eastern and European blood, because they conclude that the same is true for non-Jewish Europeans. The Biblical sources are just that, but I do know that Jews lived in Italy even before the time of Jesus. The one powerful personal confirmation of what you have written and what my DNA results show is a definite “Italian” strain. My mother had always said she had thought she was of Italian descent, but it was discredited by the family. The 6% DNA that is non-Jewish is Italian, more or less, a finding that confirms a good deal of personal research and reflection the past 20 years. Thank you , and if you have more info please send it on! Harry Katz

          • Hi Harry

            I think the Shai carmi study says that Europeans also have Middle Eastern ancestry which makes the study more complex – but that Middle Eastern ancestry is from a much earlier period. The Jews show more recent Middle Eastern ancestry . Therefore Shai Carmi refers to Jewish populations as “admixed ” which he does not apply to Europeans in general. My y chromosome for instance comes from my Lithuanian Jewish father, and is typically Middle Eastern. One would never or very rarely find such a chromosome among Lithuanian gentiles, even though Jews have lived there for close on a thousand years. Shai is shortly releasing a new study which will shed even more light on the matter, so it is worth keeping a lookout on the Internet over the next few months.

          • Hi again Mr. Dafydd,
            I sent an e-mail out to Dr. Pe’er one of the authors of that study, and to my pleasant surprise he answered me within an hour and a half and corroborated what you wrote, especially with regard to the Jewish Middle eastern ancestry being much later. But, this Y chromosome that is Middle eastern-in your family- how was this identified? I am curious because I am also Lithuanian, ancestors from Vilnius. My DNA study did not identify a Y chromosome or Middle eastern ancestry. What would happen if you also submitted a DNA sample to Yet, the Italian component- which is probably much more recent than the Middle Eastern did show up, as I thought it would, on the female side. I have a very strong suspicion that many Italian Jews left Sicily and other parts of Italy after the advent of the Inquisition and found refuge, ultimately, in Lithuania , which around 1500 or so, was still an open country to Jewish people. What do you think of this hypothesis?

          • Hi
            My y chromosome was identified in a study in 2002 when genetics had not come as far. It also consisted of only 6 markers from which you can usually tell very little except in this particular case it has one distinctive feature. The DYS 388 marker had 15 short tandem repeats.Most men have only 12. . , Haplogroups with more than 12 are common in Near Eastern countries.

            Regarding your hypothesis,it is very possible,as these migrations were documented, but I suspect one of many instances resulting in the Italian component. Roman Jews cluster very closely with Ashkenazi Jews anyway, and Italy was the conduit by which Jews entered Europe in the first place. Other reasons for it are large scale conversions of Italian women in classical times, so they may have already begun as an admixed population. It becomes more compclicated given that Ashkenazim descend from only 350 people who lived in the Middle Ages ( that is the only 350 people whose genes are left in us)

          • The Ashkenazi have 0% Middle East ancestry – ZERO!

            DNA DOES NOT LIE!

            Tony Kushner DNA
            97.5% Ashkenazi
            0.1% Finnish
            0.1% Scandinavian
            2.2% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

          • Hi Harry

            I will be happy to do that. You rightly point out that ordinary Europeans also hail from Middle eastern sources, which can confuse the results. However, geneticists are able to tell when these near eastern sources arrived in Europe. In the case of Jews, the mingling of Near Eastern and Italian ancestry can be seen to have occurred recently ( ie about 2000 years ago, and then narrowing down to a bottleneck about 800 years ago, so the different histories can be traced. ( That’s my understanding anyway !)

          • Aren’t Dershowitz and Oreilly both equally European, Dershowitz at 99.9% European ancestry and Oreilly at 99.8%. Tell me how the two men are different genetically?

            Alan Dershowitz DNA
            98.5% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Southern European
            0.1% Balkan
            0.9% Non-Specific European
            0.1% South Asian
            99.9% European
            0.1% South Asian
            0.0% Middle East

            Bill Oreilly DNA
            British Irish 87.8%
            Scandinavian 1.7%
            Iberian 0.9%
            Finish 0.2%
            Broadly European 9.2%
            Unmatched 0.2%
            European 99.8%
            Middle East 0.0%

          • Commercial studies tell you very little. Besides the fact that they deal with only one individual,which tells you nothing about population genetics, they deal with only a few markers. Shai Carmi’s for instance uses millions.

          • A new year and you are still into the foolish discussion of geneaology you recommended we terminate. Paul knew from Daniel 12:7 and the Lord Jesus affirming the Desolation coming to the Old Covenant and the apostate city where the Lord was slain is why he told Titus and Timothy to dismiss it as any tenant to the Faith.. It was shortly the time of the end where the power of the holy people was soon to be utterly destroyed Dan 12:7 ( Their power was the Covenant with God)
            Jesus came in a Cloud of Judgement as He foretold to the Sanhedrin, destroying the City, avenging Himself on His enemies and those that were persecuting His Body, Temple and Records were destroyed utterly using the Roman armies. The New Hebrew believers and the Gentiles grafted into Jesus became children of Abraham, the New Creatures, the New Temple, New Jerusalem, The Bride. The Wall of separation is down there is now only the New Man in Christ.
            Is your interest because some chance of birth gives one a special claim to God? or just a cool interest in ones heritage. If the later is the case I have erred in your motive.

          • Your error is that not all of Israel is Israel and you equate DNA with faith. The Epistle of Peter to the diaspora showed God did remarry Israel after the divorce and also Judah though the unrepentant harlot ones were burnt with fire 70A.D.. (the prophecy of Zechariah) by their faith and belief in the Lord Jesus Christ. He destroyed Jerusalem (as He warned His disciples and His enemies and a New Jerusalem came from Heaven adorned as a Bride in the marriage of the Lamb.
            The following chapter Ez 37 even prophecies the born again spiritual nation Jesus conversed with Nicodemus about in secret. He gave Nicodemus a hint about the blowing wind (Ezekiel was told to call the Wind forth to blow over the valley of dry bones). The Born again experience is for all that accept Jesus Christ the Jew and Gentile into the new Chosen Nation and Royal Priesthood.

          • Your error is to quote Romans 9 out of context with 10 and 11. You also have ignored Ezekiel 36 which explicitly refers to to a return of the Jewish people to their messiah as a nation, as does Zachariah 12-14. I suggest you read it.

          • You error is what Jesus confronted with the Jews that thought their relationship to Abraham was a firewall. 1/3 did accept their Messiah, the Lord Jesus and remembering His Words fled the destruction of Jerusalem. 2/3rds were utterly destroyed for refusing His blessing and took on the curse of the broken Torah. The time of the end (Dan 12:7) of the old covenant came but the Kingdom of which there is no end began .
            I leave you with this from Hebrews. 12:22-24
            But you have come to Mt Zion and to the city of the Living God, the Heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the first born who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all to the spirits of just men made perfect, to Jesus the MEDIATOR OF THE NEW COVENANT, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel.

          • Read the scriptures I have suggested – they will give the ones to which you have alluded a clearer context

          • I read them, The Lord Jesus is the hero and object of my Bible.

            Guess we just have to agree to disagree.

          • DARE YOU TO SHOW ME even one DNA report for any Ashkenazi with a score of even 1% ME ancestry? There are none! Ashkenazi is always at 0% ME and 99.9% European.

          • Most Ashkenazi Jews are descended from 4 Eastern European woman, the most likely theory is that nomadic traders from the middle East who migrated to Northern Europe married local women and converted them to Judaism.
            The fact that Jewishness is passed down through the mother means that the Ashkenazi Jews are not Jews in the strict sense of the word.

          • I know which study you are referring to – you have got a bit confused. Those 4 women were not East European. Read it again

          • “European Jewish is both Ashkenazi ( East/Central Europe ) and Sephardic , originating in Spain.” Source please?

            ‘Yes, most European Jews show a Middle Eastern source, particularly from the paternal lines.” Meaning the Israelite men abandoned their women and children and traveled alone? What then happened to the Israelite left behind?

            “The maternal lineages tend to be European.Many studies show the European line to be largely Italian or South European”

            The Ashkenazi shares DNA with Italians at the same level as his ME DNA, which is 0%.

            “one would expect to find early origins in the Levant” Why Levant? Why not UR-Iraq the actual homeland of Abraham-Isaac-Jacob? How do you go about claiming ancestry to a land that the Abraham clan stole instead of to the very land where Abraham is from which is UR?

            “European Jews are European/Middle Eastern ”

            Eurpean Jews are 99.9% European and 0% Middle Eastern!

            Neil Gaiman………………….. 99.9% European … 0% Middle Eastern

            “the best way to describe the Israelites is a semitic race ”

            They were from Southern Iraq now inhabited by Shia Muslims – who are in reality the blood cousins of the Israelite.

          • A huge number of studies in universities world wide with broad spectrum samples have been made on Ashkenazi genetics. They are all in the public domain. Read them.

          • Why do most Ashkenazi Jews look like their neighbours, why do Black Lemba Jews look like their neighbours and why do keifeng Jews look just like their Chinese neighbours.

          • Ashkenazi Jews do not look their neighbours. This is especially true when you see them in Ukraine and Poland ,They are often distinguishable as Jewish. Keifeng and lembas do look like their neighbours and if you study their genetics you will see why.


            “They are often distinguishable as Jewish”

            Does the Yemeni Jew look “Jewish”? Does the African? The European?


            Is the Ashkenazi a blood relative of the Jews from Zimbabwe? Yes or no?

            Zimbabwe black Jews should do Aliyah

            It may sound like another myth of a lost tribe of Israel, but British scientists have carried out DNA tests which have confirmed their Semitic origin.

            “They have a common ancestor who geneticists say lived about 3,000 years ago somewhere in north Arabia, which is the time of Moses and Aaron when the Jewish priesthood started.”

            Despite their ties to Judaism, many of the Lemba in Zimbabwe are Christians, while some are Muslims.
            “So it’s the closest descendant of the Ark that we know of,” Prof Parfitt says.



          • And why do Yemeni Jews look Yemeni? Because they are Yemeni.
            Why do Iranian Jews look Iranian? Because they are Iranian?
            Why do Chinese Jews look Chinese? Because they are Chinese.
            Why do European Jews look European? Because they are European.

            It is very simple logic. Religion never changes one’s racial makeup.

            THERE ARE NONE!


            2005 There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false
            2013 Many scientific studies are ultimately proved wrong!
            2013 Richard Smith: Time for science to be about truth rather than careers
            2014 Why most published research findings are false
            2016 One reason so many scientific studies may be wrong

          • Alan Dershowitz DNA
            98. 5% Ashkenazi
            0.4% Southern European
            0.1% Balkan
            0.9% Broadly European
            0.1% East Asian
            99.9% European
            0.0% Middle Eastern

            Source: PBS

          • Why “study”? Where is the actually DNA result for any Ashkenazi?

            Got one? Let’s see?

      • Breathe everyone and learn to let go of Pride and Prejudice. The Bible is a collection of many journeys, spiritual journeys about returning to the House of God, the rebirth of spirit of man into a spirit of God. It is not a a history book as many of you have learnt. The Holy Land of Israel is a Spiritual Place to be found within the heart and mind of mankind and only through self examination this can be achieved. In the Book of Genesis (the beginning) or Bereshith (the beginning and the end), Jacob transformed into Israel when crossing over, this is a spiritual happening and happens to anyone who embarks on the journey of self-realisation and self-awareness. All names in the Bible are Verbs, in other words doing words and not nouns. Work the meaning of the Words and the World will be a much better place. In God’s Spirit we are all One Nation, all flesh and blood. Only Love breaks down all barriers built up by selfish and self-centred people. The Stone the Builders Rejected was the Heart of Man. Love is God and God is Love, so please go in Peace to Love your neighbour as yourself while trusting and Submitting to the One God of all Humanity!

      • I am Middle Eastern and we welcome the Ashkenazi as we welcome other groups of people. But I want to tell you that I get offended by your claim to have origins in Palestine which has led to the conquest of that land by a totally European people. I have for you here 10 samples of the Ashkenazi DNA and they look identical because the Ashkenazi are in fact one of a tightly knit community who have been breeding among one another for centuries.

      • I am Middle Eastern and we welcome the Ashkenazi as we welcome other groups of people. But I want to tell you that I get offended by your claim to have origins in Palestine which has led to the conquest of that land by a totally European people. I have for you here 10 samples of the Ashkenazi DNA and they look identical because the Ashkenazi are in fact one of a tightly knit community who have been breeding among one another for centuries.

      • ” explaining that that’s not even how Judaism works just doesn’t seem to sink into their blood purity obsessed little left-wing racialist racist skulls.”

        So why does Israel give DNA tests to prospective immigrants?

        Why did the Robert Lapin foundation, the govt of Israel and other organizations run programs designed to prevent or limit Jewish interbreeding?

        There is quite obviously a racial component to Judaism.

      • And we share 50% of our DNA with bananas.. It is the minor differences that tell the tale, and you are quite right – genetics must have some degree of accuracy or it wouldn’t be used to solve crimes.

        • Exactly!

          DNA has confirmed that the Ashkenazi have no trace of Middle East ancestry, zero, zilch! Here are 10 samples that look almost identical because the Ashkenazi are a closely knit group that had been breeding among its own members for centuries.

          Name………………………. European……. Middle Eastern
          1) Alex Feinberg…………… 99.8% …………… 0%
          2) Dershowitz DNA………. 99.9% …………….0%
          3) Rabbi Hammerman…,,, 99.9% …………… 0%
          4) Tony Kushner…………… 99.9% …………….0%
          5) Joseph Cohen………….. 99.8% …………… 0%
          6) Bill Maher…………………..99.9% ……………..0%
          7) Neil Gaiman……………… 99.9% …………… .0%
          8) Jill Sobule………….. …….99.9% ……………..0%
          9) Alisa R Doctoroff…….. ..98.0% …………….. 0%
          10) A.J. Jacobs………………99.9% ……………. 0%


    • Bingo! Our common humanity transcends all of this culturally conditioned framing of “identity”.

      To continue to kill each other off as if our superficial differences were so extreme is a form of delusional insanity at best and sheer toxic malignant evil at worst.

    • “Syrians and Jewish DNA are more similar as they share a semetic background”

      Nah! It makes no sense! If Abraham-Isaac-Jacob are from UR-Iraq -1,000 miles away from Palestine, why isn’t the DNA of the supposed descendants of Abraham UR-DNA? Palestine is only the land that the folks of UR stole,is it not?

      I am a Semite and I must really tell you that I share no Semitic DNA with Europeans unless those Europeans have Arab Semitic ancestry since no Ashkenazi is Semite.

  5. You are correct in that we are all the family of Man and genealogy is a
    stupid way to judge people (Book of Timothy and Titus calls it foolish).
    there is a war being fought based on claims of bloodlines and claims to
    a land (blood of Abraham) in God’s name. The irony is that those being
    displaced may have more kinship to Abraham than those doing the

  6. No I don’t think so. The Italians and Jews are related MUCH further back in time. I think they all started out in Sumer. My dad’s Y dna started out in Iraq, he’s Italian, went to Island of Crete. Remember the Abraham story he started out there too.

    • There were also huge numbers of Jewish people in Italy and the entire Mediterranean basin during the Roman era, so you may have Jewish ancestry from that time.

  7. In agreement with Dr. Entine.

    It is unlikely that Ashkenazim, named for the Kurdo-Parthian Empire “Ashkuza” after the defeat of the Persian Empire by the Parthians, [Lissner, ibid] had cultural similarities to Southern Sephardim and Mitzrahim, although there have been citations for Ashkenaz in-migration to pre-Inquisition Spain and Italy, and out-migration of Sephardim and Mitzrahim to Jewish region of Europe:

    Since 2006, and certainly before [Nebel, et. al., 2001] c. 2009 in the paper, “Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations”,

    Nebel, Filon, et. al. “The Y Chromosome of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East”.

    the gradations of genetic similarity between all contemporary Jews, and their contemporary Near Eastern neighbors, including Levantine Arabs, Kurds and Adyghe, are measured still closer to one another than to their neighboring populations, including Italkim, Ashkenazim and Mizrahim. The genetic distance from classical era Jews and their Near Eastern neighbors was not measured. All Kurds and Jews also have a very high genetic correspondence, cit. Lavendar, [Nebel, et. al.]:

    The Moorish invasions of the Near East and Southern Europe likely altered the face of the inhabitants, including possible intermarriage with Berbers or Arabs. Furthermore the lineage of Sephardim may include Berbers or Carthaginians, in low infiltrations due to the length of duration of their colonies in Iberian regions. However, Italkim have been demonstrated to have the highest genetic correspondence to Ashkenazim c. 2010, “Studies Show Jews’ Genetic Similarity”:

    Moreover, common to all modern Jewish populations are the c. 5%++ North, West, Central and East African genetic contributions to Hebrew, Israelite and Jewish populations, especially until c. 100 CE and the global Exile from Israel:

    Moorjani, et. al. “The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews”.

    Therefore it is certain that very few Russian migrants from before the Communist Era have very much more mixed ancestry, than Italkim. Some contemporary Russian migrants, let alone Italian or Sephardic migrants from Latin America with mixed Latino-Jewish ancestry, are studied before Aliyah and their mixed lineage is noted as parentage having converts or Gerim, making it unlikely that even small groups of total, pre-1920 Italian or Russian Jews, are of a strong mixed ancestry, if they have kept their lineage from Judaic or Israeli exile genetic founding populations in their current nations of landing all of which sharing strong Afro-Asiatic, Near Eastern Y- and MtDNA lines.

    Jonah Lissner
    Independent Researcher of Sciences, PhD Student

    • DNA has confirmed that the Ashkenazi have no trace of Middle East ancestry, zero, zilch! Here are 10 samples that look almost identical because the Ashkenazi are a closely knit group that had been breeding among its own members for centuries.

      Name………………………. European……. Middle Eastern
      1) Alex Feinberg…………… 99.8% …………… 0%
      2) Dershowitz DNA………. 99.9% …………….0%
      3) Rabbi Hammerman…,,, 99.9% …………… 0%
      4) Tony Kushner…………… 99.9% …………….0%
      5) Joseph Cohen………….. 99.8% …………… 0%
      6) Bill Maher…………………..99.9% ……………..0%
      7) Neil Gaiman……………… 99.9% …………… .0%
      8) Jill Sobule………….. …….99.9% ……………..0%
      9) Alisa R Doctoroff…….. ..98.0% …………….. 0%
      10) A.J. Jacobs………………99.9% ……………. 0%


  8. Problem with denying the Khazar theory can be seen in how the article admits near the end that over 80% of the Ashkenazi Jews are indigenous to Europe 2000 years ago….where did they migrate from to Europe? Judea and Samaria? Or Khazar? A large number of Khazars migrated to Europe during that time period. Clarification was not really given. Just promoting the Rhine theory, which has been criticized just as much, if not more than the Khazar theory.

  9. I’m really surprised that the genetic researchers could detect that the Italian foremothers converted to Judaism. What kind of genetic marker does halachic conversion leave? Some sort of mutation?

    Absent such a genetic marker, Is there any paperwork showing these women converted? Which rabbis decided these women had validly converted, and what are their bona fides?

    No, as far as the evidence shows, since being a Jew depends on having a Jewish mother, most likely the European “Jews” are not Jewish at all. Surely Orthodox Jews would not recognize them as Jewish, which means Orthodox Jews with European mothers/grandmothers/etc. should not recognize themselves as Jewish.

    More importantly, merely living as if one were Jewish does not make you Jewish. You need to convert. But surely conversions performed by a Gentile rabbi would be invalid, as would ordinations, etc.

    If I were an Ashkenazi Conservative or Orthodox Jew, I would surely convert under a Mizrahi rabbi as soon as humanly possible, to remove the uncertainty.

  10. I feel more of a kinship with Koko the gorilla than most people I meet. I think our rapidly disappearing ape relatives are the true spiritual creatures of this planet. I don’t care what religion people claim to be, most of them are heartless bastards.

  11. Everywhere is criticized the Khazarian Hypothesis but 50% of the Jews have Non Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Haplogroupes (Dutch Jews have even 24% R1b1b2 and a lot of Easterner got through Bavaria Bohemia… 12% Saxony R1b….too … About Khazars from their Elite who converted and REMAINED Jewish, it comes out about 6% of Q1b Ydna which IS NOT COMING FROM ELSEWHERE THAN ALTAÏ…So Khazar White Turks

  12. According to Nicholas Wade of the New York Times, Doron Behar, one of the key authors of the 2006 analysis, said he disagreed with the conclusions, but has provided no detailed critique as yet.

    Behar and Others are AMAZING !!!!!They are in a Denying since the late 90/2000 they make fancy Stats with 17 people !

  13. The question I wonder is, did the Jews get their maternal ancestry from Italians, or do many Italians have ancient ancestry from Jews? I have Italian ancestry myself, and I had no idea that the bulk of my DNA might be shared with Jews – from all over the world, that is – until I got into genetic genealogy. As it turns out, I am very closely related to Sephardic and Mizrahi (Middle Eastern) Jews, as well as a close affinity to Ashkenazim. I am somehow even distantly related to Iraqi Jews. Iraq is quite far from Italy. I am also related to many non-Jew populations in the middle east. If these tools are accurate, I am particularly related to Palestinians, Bedouins, Syrian Jews, Druze and Samaritans. Reading DNA forums, I find that these are common results for Italians. This tells me that it could have something to do with Italy’s diverse history and the many people who came and settled in the regions. I know that many Jews indeed came to Italy and converted to Catholicism to integrate. This means that we really do have some Jewish history in Italy and history with parts of the Middle East as well. Not to forget all of the contact the Roman Empire had with the Middle East. My family lived around various regions Italy as far as I know, yet there was never any mention of us having Jewish ancestors. I wonder how many other Italian people will find this surprise in their DNA.

    • Sorry I wrote that post poorly. I was up late browsing the net. To say “converted to integrate” does not sound correct as I realize many of them were forced to convert.

    • Here is a link that has more than 100 DNA reports for Italians or Southern Europeans. The Italians do indeed have large levels of Middle East ancestry – as high as 20%. People of the Middle East too do have European DNA. But the Ashkenazi who make up 90% of world Jewry have no trace of Italian DNA and vice versa. Therefore, the Italians and the people of the Middle East did cross-breed, but the Ashkenazi and the Italians or the Ashkenazi and the people of the Middle East do not not share DNA. You must remember that the Ashkenazi is an isolated group that had been breeding within its own Ashkenazi group only. On average, the Ashkenazi score 96% “Ashkenazi DNA” and the remaining come from Eastern Europe.

  14. DNA doesn’t carry ideas, values, or personality. It may be the building blocks of those things – but we are free to choose to be the sorts of men we want to be. Judge human beings as individuals, not as herds of animals. And as the study makes clear -we’re all a mix of everything.

  15. Spin, political pressures, propaganda, financial incentives, I question whether objective results can be obtained and if obtained survive to be published. If the desert Deity who talked to Abraham promised the Jews the land of the Philistines in exchange for genocide does that mean modern Jews get a pass for genocide today?

    • The population of Gaza is one of the fastest-growing populations in the world since the strip has been under Israeli control. Tonnes of supplies are trucked in every day by Israel, while leftist “flotillas” carry a few expired medications and nothing of any use. Only in a leftist Neo-Nazi’s propaganda is that any kind of a “genocide”.

  16. Beautiful prostitutes get paid well by their wealthy customers, but often they become pregnant. Most are wives whose husbands raise the children while their mothers continue to work. It is not surprising that due to their wealthy clients the children inherited genes that got them to be shrewd and smart.
    “Jewesses were prominent in the practice of prostitution. Thus, of 5127 licensed prostitutes in 1889, 1122 or 22 per cent were Jewish. Prostitution was very prevalent in th…e impoverished Habsburg province of Galicia. According to Rabbi Rosenak of the German Union of Rabbis, in 1902”
    Owing to widespread poverty in the Jewish community many Jewish wives resorted to prostitution in order to live. The upside is that their children often came out with blond hair, blue eyes, and were smart and shrewd.
    That is the reason why many Jews today are millionaires.
    May 2015

  17. First Eran Elhaik is a total arsehole.There was a photograph
    Around 1921 showing Haim Weizmann dressed in a khaffir he looked more Arabian than the Arabians though he was an Ashkenazi Jew.
    There are numerous Ashkenazim today which can be easily
    taken for Arabs. The Jews in Europe for the passed 2,000 years
    all originated from Judea, yes there are some Jews who don’t look Jewish, the reason is that there was some admixture over time either through conversion or mixed marriage. HOWEVER the German NAzis under Hitler during the 3rd Reich didn’t distinguish between who looked
    Jewish and who didn’t, only today the Israel bashers do in order
    to try and de-legitimize Israel by stating that JEWS are infact just
    European colonisers. These stupid people if confronted with some Jews wouldn’t be able to distinguish them from Arabs, Kurds or Druze.

  18. This article seems to assume a primitive biological (dare I say racist?) notion of national identity. It is cultural transmission (including, in the case of Jews, conversion) rather than genetic transmission which forms the real basis of nationhood. And you don’t need genetic speculations to know that contemporary Jews are the current bearers of Jewish culture which has been handed down and developed continuously from geneneration to generation across millenia.

  19. An obvious problem with the Khazar hypothesis, a favorite with anti-Zionists, is the phenotype of that original population, presumably Turki-Mongolid, in contrast to the Armenid features of most Ashkenazim. This one will run and run, with everyone from Shlomo Sand to Kevin MacDonald having something to pop into mix – but ultimately it will be objective and thorough genetic research that will settle this oh-so-sensitive issue.

      • Most interesting. On this basis do the Ashkenazim have any claim to Palestine, especially if they have no religious belief?

        Your view of Harry Ostrer’s “:Legacy” (2012) is welcome.

        • I am Middle Eastern and the Ashknazi are vividly European. When Europeans come to visit Arab villages, the children will run after them saying, “Ajnabee” meaning foreigner. How do you think they know they are foreigners? Of course, perhaps from how they dress but also how they look. Do you think the Arab children will not run after the Ashkenazi calling him foreigner? Of course. The point that I am making is that the Ashkenazi is European, period! Before DNA, he claimed this and that but hard to say this-and-that in the age of DNA.

          I am not too familiar with Harry Ostrer’s “Legacy”. But from what I can remember reading on it, it is a bunch of scientific mambo-jumbo signifying nothing. They still need to explain why the Ashkenazi is totally devoid of any ME ancestry while millions of Southern Europeans carry large levels of ME ancestry. My understanding is that Judaism came to a European people who are now known as the Ashkenazi. And because the religion teaches not to marry outside of the group, the Ashkenazi had been breeding within the group ever since. They did not come from the ME, Judaism came to them in exactly the same way Christianity traveled to Europe.

          • Thank you. Your posts albeit repetitive have been most interesting and lucid, unlike some of the filthy language and/or religious rubbish in so-called response to them.

          • Can you tell me what you mean by repetitive so that I may avoid doing so if I know where I am being repetitive. Thanks.

            I am still waiting for you to answer my question about Ashkenazi and Sephardi sharing …

          • You repeatedly post the same samples of well-known Ashkenazim without ME ancestry.

            Awaiting hospitalization again, I do not now have time to dig out the details you now request, but meanwhile see e.g. J. R. Baker, “Race”, OUP 1974, p.246; N. Wade, “Studies show Jews’ genetic similarity”, NYT, 2010.

          • I never wait for any ‘pending” comment to be approved, often it is a word that triggers it. Try posting a paragraph at at time, post the the fist paragraph then edit your comment and then add the 2nd paragraph and so on until it goes pending again and you will know which paragraph is causing it and look for the ‘offending word’.

          • I browsed through the first few pages of your comment history and I would like you to know that you should not throw out statements that you cannot back up with evidence. I do understand that you are a white supremacist but you still need to remain credible by making factual statements.
            1) and Middle Eastern migrants and bombers should not be in Europe. Who are the ME bombers? You risk looking childish when you make silly and childish statements like this one.
            2) The Sephardim and Ashkenazim have not been totally separate genetically. I asked you to tell me what you mean and you just ran away. ‘Sephardim” sometimes means Spanish-Portuguese Jews only and sometimes the Arab Jews are added. And you made that statement up with nothing to back it up – nothing!
            3) The Arabs and Sephardim were more closely related as Orientalid-Mediterranean people than the Armenid Ashkenazim. Again, one silly statement after another. The Arabs are not a race; an Arab is anyone whose mother tongue is Arabic. Sudanese and Yemenis are not the same race. Again, you made up that statement.
            4) Harry Ostrer’s “Legacy: A genetic history of the Jewish people” (2012). You cannot have a genetic history of the Jewish people since they are made up of many races such as Arab Jews, European, Jews, African Jews. The title itself should make this book suspect.
            5) I agree with you too re Islam – but even the Mormons and JWs do not threaten apostates with execution. The Jews, Muslim, Christians lived in peace when white Christian Europe was murdering its Jews. Before you proceed with such silly statements, you need to give us a list of apostates that were executed in Arab-Muslim countries. Got such a list for us?
            6) The Quran tells believers not to take Jews or Christians as comrades People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
            Deuteronomy 13:6-10 Someone else may say to you, “Let’s worship other gods.” That person may be your best friend, your brother or sister, your son or daughter, or your own dear wife or husband. But you must not listen to people who say such things. Instead, you must stone them to death. You must be the first to throw the stones, then others from the community will finish the job. Don’t show any pity. The gods worshiped by other nations have never done anything for you or your ancestors. People who ask you to worship other gods are trying to get you to stop worshiping the Lord, who rescued you from slavery in Egypt. So put to death anyone who asks you to worship another god.
            7) Jews have more foresight with money than with diplomacy. Which Jews? The Ugandan or Yemeni or Chinese or German Jews? This is one in a series of just silly statements.
            8) Should all people with white skins living today bear the “guilt” of actions now considered wrong carried out by some other people with white skins living in past centuries? Isn’t this “racism” in the pejorative sense of the term? Britain handed over Palestine to European Jewry. Britain invaded Iraq and bombed it to shreds. Do you not feel an obligation to somehow undo the evils done to others by your people?

          • I have not “run away” but am now away from my library at home. So just a few comments for the time being.

            I personally do not accept as authoritative the “Old” or “New Testament”, any more than the Quran or Hadith.

            “My people” were not directly responsible for the Balfour agreement; and I opposed the war against Iraq as did many British people.

            Islamists of migrant origin have caused explosions or tried to cause them in Britain.

            Of course, “the Jews” are not a systemic race in the basic taxonomic sense; this was pointed out even by Nazi anthropologists.

            The statement about finance and politics referred primarily to the self-defined Jewish communities in Europe and America; cf. the studies by Jerry Muller, Jacques Attali, Werner Sombart, Kevin MacDonald, Karl Marx, Karl Kautsky.

            The application of the label “white supremacist” to me can mislead readers. It is fair to say that I want the “white nations” to remain predominantly “white” and that I wish us to have a major influence in world affairs, but I do not advocate the invasion, colonization or domination of other lands.

          • My reply to your attack has not appeared as of 1.30 PM GMT Sunday May 15, 2017.

            Re (5) On Muslim violence against other believers and apostates, see e.g. the writings of Raymond Ibrahim (Gatestone Institute online).

          • I gave advise on how to post your comments if they are being held up. It may not be human but technical interference such as a forbidden word. Try to post yours a paragraph at at time and then go to edit and keep adding your paragraphs until it goes into pending and you will now where to find the ‘offending’ word.

          • There were no conceivable “forbidden” words in my posts. I am now away from my library at home, but will just repeat for now my reminder that I have two references to intermarriage between Sephardim and Ashenazim by John Baker & Nicholas Wade, & you can search the internet yourself.

            There have been Islamist bombings in Europe.

            I would not accept the label “supremacist” without precise definition.

          • There have been Christian SHOCK&AWE on many Muslim countries … do you want me to name them?

            For the Ashkenazi to marry an Arab Jew is considered a big shame

            And what if she’s Sephardi?
            Ynet News – Neta Sela|Published: 06.08.07

            “On the ‘haredi street’ it’s known that if an Ashkenazi guy marries a Sephardi girl he must have a problem. It’s unusual for Sephardim and Ashkenazim to get married because Sephardim are considered inferior and Ashkenazim are considered more elite. For a Sephardi girl it’s a step up in the world to get an Ashkenazi guy.

            In this world, marriages between two people from different ethnic groups are almost impossible, and are certainly rare, even today. The official explanation for racial segregation is different approaches to Jewish law. Ashkenazim, for example, tend to be stricter, while Sephardim are more lenient.

            Menachem from Jerusalem admits that this approach is not necessarily in keeping with the lofty values of Judaism, but he frankly confesses that “no matter how shocking this sounds, it’s the reality. You can even offer a 30-year old guy a Sephardi girl and he’ll be insulted to the depths of his soul, and won’t understand how you could even dare to suggest such a thing.”

            He says that the social stigmas surrounding this issue are so strong that he finds it hard to believe that “anything will change soon. Even my children and even my grandchildren are liable to suffer from this. Right away they’ll start to talk about it behind your back – ‘Did you hear that so-and-so married a Sephardi girl?’ It’s an embarrassment.”


          • When I return home I shall download to print that interesting item. Ethnic & religious hostilities within Israel are well known.

            I have never supported western attacks on Arab countries and the US-Israel “alliance” to that end.

          • When I return home I shall print the interesting item you quote. Ethnic & religious friction inside Israel is well known.

            I have never supported western attacks on Arab countries in the interest of US


          • My answer came & went.

            I shall print your Ynet quote. There is well-known ethnic/religious friction inside Israel.I have never supported US attacks on Arab countries.

          • I agree with you completely on this. I believe that the Ashkenazi Jews were the indigenous peoples of pre-historic Europe. Judaism was introduced to them. As Dr. Richards claimed, most likely from a few Jews who made it into Europe and then proselytized. There was a mass conversion of Europeans who took on Judaism and raised their children in that religion. They didn’t marry outside that group if they didn’t faithfully practice that religion.

            The funny thing is you’ll get these white nationalist’s who will claim Jews aren’t white. I mean, can the Jews in Europe be any whiter?


            David Duke is the first out there to say that Jews are not white or Jews are not Khazars or that Jews are race and the reason is very obvious that he does not want the group of people that he hates the most to be part of Europe. But that is also what the Ashkenazi believe. Therefore, these age-old and sworn enemies have something that binds them together. What I find odd is when Jews groups start to post Duke’s statements that they are not white as confirmation and validation. But how dothey neglect to post all the horrible things that Duke says about Jews.

          • You said you were from the Middle East. I presume Yemen? Would that be correct?

            May I ask if you’re a religious person? Muslim, Christian, Jew? Just curious.

            And great pic of Duke and Hirsh. That’s why it drives me crazy when someone says “they look Jewish”. That’s because Hollywood wants everyone to believe all Jews look like Woody Allen.

          • I will refer to Ashkenazi as (AJ) = Ashkenazi Jews

            1) I am Middle Eastern but raised outside the Middle East and firmly a non-believer. I would rather not say what part of the Middle East my ancestry is from.

            2) The is a “Jewish look” but it is not “Jewish” but “(AJ) look”. How else have I been able to tell that one is an (AJ) when I came across one and have always been correct? Of course, there are among the (AJ) those that just look your average white European. There are some groups of people that have distinct group features such as the Somalis, Ethiopians, Yemenis, Nigerians, Indians and when I identify them as part of their group their reaction is always a smile. But who would even dare tell an (AJ )that he looks like one? If you tell an (AJ) that he looks Middle Eastern, that would be the best compliment for him. Weird, just weird.

            3) I have hundreds of pictures of the (AJ) saved that I will be uploading online soon. I have yet to see one image of any (AJ )that has even the slightest resemblance to anyone in the Middle East. You have read on this blog how they say they look “Arab” or “Semitic”. That is total nonsense. They never say they look Mexican or Indian but only the Arab people who live on that land they call their ancestral land. That is why these pictures become very powerful. When they start their silly comments about how they look like ME people, I just give them the link that has hundreds of images of the (AJ) and ask them to tell me which one looks “Semitic”. They always run away.

            4) “That person looks Jewish” is like saying that person looks Muslim or Christian. Remember that 90-95% of world Jewry is (AJ)

            Here are 3 very short videos where the (AJ) say they are not ‘white”, i.e. not European.

          • I have come across some who call themselves progressives but one thing they will never leave behind is their “Jewish identity” even as atheists. I then asked them if they are atheist, what remains that makes them Jews? Is it in the kidney, in the bones, in the blood? These folks will never talk to me again because “the Jew” they are referring to is the “Israelite blood” in them. Ridiculous!

  20. Looking through these comments on July 22, 2015, I see a jumble of conflicting assertions and pronouncements, many detached from the latest historical or genetic data. I support freedom of expression, but would like some expressions to be more grounded in reality. Many of us know the joke that where you have 2 Jews you get 3 opinions, but this is ridiculous (so much so that I am surprised that the WJC and ADL censorhip committees have not taken a watchful interest).

  21. The bottom line is the Ahskenazi women were not the Jews of the Middle East. They were indigenous people of Europe who “converted” to Judaism and became Jews. Then raised their families as Jews.

    I’m so tired of people trying to pass off Jewish heritage as a people of race or nationality. Being a Jew is a religious identity! Period!

    Abraham’s covenant with Go_ was a religious covenant not a racial covenant. This new DNA evidence just proves that so many American Jews are not the Jews of Israel or the Middle East.

    • Actually that’s not the bottom line and not what the genes. Jews s generally homogenous group with overwhelming links to the Middle East. Jews have as much or more racial identity as almost any ethnic group in the world. There is no evidence Abrahim existed. And if so he sealed s tribal relationship..not a religious one as we now use the word. It was based on community and not faith.

      • I have no idea what you are trying to say? I know you are the blog owner and a genetic expert but your statements make no sense!

        I am Middle Eastern and I can tell you that no Ashkenazi is. Period. Just as no Japanese or Eskimo is. The Ashkenazi are European and they do score on average 96% in a genetic group called “Ashkenazi” (23andme) or “European-Jewish” (ancestry dot com). These people have no trace of ME ancestry – zero! Therefore, trying to link up a people where they have no ancestry is not going to sound acceptable. Imagine if the Nigerians were to insist that they were Norwegians? Nothing connects the Ashkenaz to the ME – nothing.

    • The Ashkenazi score on average 96% in the genetic group called “Ashkenazi”. That simply means they are not mixed with anyone but a group of a European people, perhaps the Khazars, who converted to Judaism and kept their racial make up in tact by marrying within the group.

  22. Jon,

    Many Jewish Scholars would disagree with you and so does the scientific evidence. Jews are not a “race” of people. Jews can have red hair or black hair, different facial features, etc. They are not a race. Being a Jew is a religious identity.

    In addition, Do you think the Jews of Morocco have anything in common with Jews from Russia? They don’t.

        • See the Behar study – it is one of many. You will also find it under “Genetic Studies on Jews “in Wikipedia. They share strong genetic affinities, whereas Jews from Russia are not very related to Russians – quite far in fact

          • There are many DNA studies that have differing opinions. There was a DNA study conducted several years ago that traced the mitochondrial DNA from European Jewish women. The study showed that the DNA of these women was more closely related to the indigenous European peoples than those from the Levant. Indicating that there was quite possibly a mass conversion.

            Jews have intermarried and converted to and from Judaism for thousands of years. In addition, Jews have been dispersed throughout the world for thousands of years.

            Having an affinity doesn’t make it the same.

            Even the reputable DNA labs will tell you that they can’t say whether you’re Jewish or not, because it is a religion. What they can say is whether you might have had Jewish ancestry.

            Just as a Brazilian who’s family originated from Scotland hundreds of years ago. That doesn’t make one Scottish. They are Brazilian.

            It makes sense if one doesn’t have DNA closely related to those from the Levant than they aren’t the Jews of the Bible. Most likely converts who’ve evolved over the generations. Which is why the DNA of Jews from the Levant, Europe and the Iberian Peninsula are different.

            People in certain areas of the world also have similar DNA or genetic features.Some Greeks and Arabs have been noted to have similar DNA to Jews, yet they weren’t Jewish.

          • You are referring to the Richards Study- and that is precisely my point. Ashkenazi Jewish maternal ancestry is largely South European, D, and so is the maternal ancestry of Moroccan Jews. Roman women were known to have converted in large numbers. The men were less inclined to do so. There is a broad consensus in the majority of DNA studies on this point. No geneticist talks in terms of “proving Jewishness” All these studies show are remarkable similarities and a shared history between most Jewish groups on a y chromosome level, and between Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews on a MtDNA level.

          • There are many groups with similar DNA that are closely related. That doesn’t mean they have anything in common such as language, food or culture and traditions.

            But we can agree there was a mass conversion from European women to Judaism.

            There is a saying. Put two Jewish scholars in a room to describe what a Jew is and you’ll get 4 different answers.

          • True – Jews largely do not agree on who is a Jew. Unfortunately, in the anti semitic world we live in the rest of the world is deeply aware of what they consider a Jew to be, and on one level, I have to agree that most Jews in Europe look physically different from their European hosts. Perhaps it is the particular admixture , mixed though it is,that they share!

          • Well I can tell you I knew a few Jews who you would never have guessed were Jews based on physical appearance. Hollywood would love people to believe all Jews look like woody Allen.

            I had a friend who I used to work out with occasionally. You would think he was 100% Aryian white spremecist based on looks.

            Very small nose, high cheek bones, crew cut hair, big boned and physically strong. I happened to stop by his house one time and saw a pic of him making his barmitzvah. I was floored.

            I met several “Jews” who didn’t look anything close to what a European Jew is stereotyped as.

            I personally believe being a Jew is a religious identity.

          • Indeed, there are some very aryan looking Jews. It depends I presume on which part of their ancestry predominates. For the most part, i find them easy to distinguish without even knowing anything about them.

            I often used to wonder why so many Jews of Ashkenazi descent had a type of frizzy hair that you would never find in Northern Europe. A recent study by Moorjani showed a level of 3 – 5% Sub Saharan African ancestry , interestingly across all Jewish groups, Mizrachi included that appears to have entered their population at the same time. It is fascinating to know where they picked this up. Perhaps that is where the expression “Jewfro ” came from!

          • The average Ashkenazi score 96% in a genetic group called “Ashkenazi” or “European Jewish”. The Ashkenazi are in fact unmixed, one of the purest and whitest of European groups.

        • You are 100% correct.

          Keep these facts in mind:

          1. The Arab Jews have nothing in common with the Ashkenazi Jews except for religion but have everything in common with their Arab brothers and sisters except for religion.

          2. Arab Jews are the brothers and sisters of the Arab people but only coreligionists of Ashkenazi Jews.

          3. Arabs Jews lived in peace and harmony with their Arab brothers and sisters while European Jews were hated for centuries.

          4. Arab Jews were brought to Palestine by the white Jews as cheap labor to replace the 900,000 Palestinians that the Europeans ethnically cleansed from their land.

          5. The arrival of the foreign non-Semitic Ashkenazi Jews from Europe to Arab Palestine disturbed the peaceful coexistence of all Arabs.

          • This “Dafydd” can only respond to those he feels they do not know much about his propaganda. He does of course understand that he cannot respond to me without risking looking like a child.